The Lower Respiratory System: The Larynx

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glottis

inhaled air passes through the ________ en route to the lungs

larynx

(composed of 9 cartilages) surrounds and protects the glottis

epiglottis

projects into the pharynx

vestibular folds

relatively inelastic fold that of the glottal opening

vocal fold

delicate fold of the glottal opening

sound

air passing through the glottis vibrates the vocal folds and produces ________

intrinsic laryngeal muscles

regulate tension in the vocal folds and open and close the glottis.

extrinsic laryngeal muscles

positions and stabilizes the larynx

swallowing

during _______, both sets of laryngeal muscles help to prevent particles from entering the glottis

trachea

(widpipe) extends from the sixth cervical vertebra to the fifth thoracic vertebra

submucosa

contains C-shaped tracheal cartilages

tracheal cartilages

stiffen the tracheal walls and protect the airway.

right and left primary bronchi

the trachea branches within the mediastinum to form _________ and ________ ________ ________

bronchial tree

the primary bronchi and their branches form ________

hilus

opening where the primary bronchi enter

root of the lung

connective tissue mass including the bronchus, pulmonary vessels, and nerves

primary, secondary (lobar), tertiary

three types of bronchi

secondary and tertiary

________ has less cartilage and more smooth muscle in comparison to the primary bronchi

lobes of the lungs

separated by obliques fissures

right lung

________ has three lobes and three secondary bronchi

superior, middle, inferior lobar bronchi

three secondary bronchi

left lung

________ has two lobes and two secondary bronchi

superior lobar and inferior lobar bronchi

two secondary bronchi

costal surface

______ of the lung follows the inner contours of the rib cage

mediastinal surface

contains a hilus

cardiac impression and notch

the left lung bears the _________

parenchyma

the connective tissues of the root extend into the _______ of the lung

trabeculae

the connective tissues of the root extend into the parenchyma of the lung as a series of _________

septa

series of trabeculae forms the ________

lobules

septa divide the lung into _______

left and right primary bronchi

extrapulmonary bronchi are outside the lung tissue

intrapulmonary lungs

(branches within the lung) surrounded by bands of smooth muscle

bronchopulmonary segments

each lung is further divided into smaller units

tertiary bronchi

bronchopulmonary segments are named according to the associated _______ ________

10 bronchopulmonary segments

the right lung contains ____ _________ __________

8-9 bronchopulmonary segments

the left lung contains ____ ________ _________

terminal bronchioles

within the bronchopulmonary segments each teriary bronchus ultimately gives rise to 50-80 _____ ______ that supply individual lobules

respiratory membrane

(aveolar lining) consists of a simple squamous epithelium of Type 1 cells

septal cells

Type II cells scattered in it produce an oily secretion (surfactant) that keeps the alveoli from collapsing.

surfactant

secretion from septal cells that keeps the alveoli from collapsing

alveolar macrophages

(dust cells) patrol the epithelium and engulf Ags

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