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mouth

entrance of digestive system

pharynx

found in the back of the throat, used for digestion and respiration

epiglottis

small flap that closes entrance to trachea during digestion

esophagus

muscular tube that carries bolus from mouth to stomach

cardiac sphincter

muscle between the esophagus and stomach, prevents acidic gastric juices from flowing up into esophagus

stomach

the organ that releases acidic material to break down the food into smaller pieces

pyloric sphincter

muscle that allows food from stomach to pass into the small intestines

small intestines

majority of digestion takes place in here, divided into three parts

duodenum

first part of small intestines, most digestion takes place, chemicals released from liver, gall bladder, and pancreas

jejunum

second part of small intestines, absorbs nutrients from digested food

ileum

last part of small intestines, absorbs enzymes and anything left over by jejunum

ileocecal sphincter

muscle between small and large intestines, regulates flow of chyme

large intestines

receives and eliminates waste products from small intestines, absorbs water from remaining bolus

rectum

muscle after the large intestines, temporary storage for feces

anus

end of digestive tract, opening where feces are expelled

peristalsis

the method used in the esophagus and small intestines to move bolus through

pepsinogen and HCl

two main chemicals released in stomach

liver

organ that releases bile

emulsification

process in which bile breaks down fat

pancreas

organ that contains majority of digestive enzymes

gall bladder

organ that stores bile

capillaries

very small blood vessels that absorb nutrients

hepatic portal system

brings blood from digestive system to liver for processing

pepsinogen

released in stomach, reacts with HCl to create pepsin

lipase

enzyme that breaks down lipids

salivary amylase

released in mouth, breaks down food with teeth (mechanical digestion)

pancreatic amylase

enzyme from pancreas that breaks down starch

nuclease

enzyme that breaks down nucleotides

trypsin

enzyme that breaks down proteins

chymotrypsin

enzyme that breaks down peptide bonds, mostly inactive

maltase

enzyme that breaks down maltose

sucrase

enzyme that breaks down monosaccharides

lactase

enzyme that breaks down lactose

peptidase

enzyme that breaks down specific peptide bonds

feces

waste product, mostly cellulose, e. coli, water, and bilirubin

ruminates

food that is regurgitated for more mechanical digestion (common for cows, rabbits, etc.)

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