BioMed Module 14

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false

True or false, stimulation of skeletal muscle contraction is an action of a hormone.

blood plasma

What connective tissue typically delivers hormones to a target cell?

interstital fluid, blood

Endocrine glands are those that secrete their substance into the surrounding ______ ______ and the _______.

true

True or false, responses to hormones are usually distant from the site of release.

longer

The response time for hormones is typically _______ than neurotransmitters

decreasing

Down-regulation is a process by which target cells alter their responsiveness by ______ the number of hormone receptors.

up-regulation

Cancer cells can achieve their rapid growth by increasing the number of cellular growth receptors. This process is known as ______-______.

insulin-like (IGFs)

During the stress response the liver will produce ______-______ growth factor, which increases blood glucose levels.

insulin shock

______ ______ can be the result of a diabetic taking too much insulin.

liver

Paracrine hormones act on _______ cells.

autocrine

Hormones which bind to receptors on the same cell that secreted them are ______ hormones.

second

Lipid-soluble hormones do not require a _________ messenger.

water-soluble hormone

What type of hormone circulates as unbound-hormone in the blood stream and doesn't diffuse through the cell membrane?

lipid-soluble hormone

Which type of hormone typically circulates in the blood bound to protein?

lipid-soluble hormone

Based on solubility, what class of hormones are steroidal hormones?

genes

A lipid-soluble hormone binds to an intracellular receptor and influences the expression of ______ in a cell.

melatonin

The pineal gland secretes _______.

Ca++

cAMP, cGMP, and ______ are all examples of 2nd messengers.

negative feedback

PTH and calcitonin (thyrocalcitonin) are antagonists in the control of blood Ca++. This is an example of a ______-_______ loop.

positive feedback

In a feedback loop, childbirth and lactation are examples of _________ __________.

permissive

When two hormones are required for the desired action it is a __________ effect.

synergistic

When the combination of two hormones creates a stronger response it is a ________ effect.

neurohypophysis

The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is the ________.

adenohypophysis

The _______ is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by blood vessels.

hypothalamus

The region of the brain located superior to the pituitary gland is the_______.

???

Hormones from the hypothalamus are called ___________ hormones.

endocrine glands

Tropic hormones from the adenohypophysis act on other __________.

neurohypophysis

ADH and oxytocin are released from the _______________.

LH (luteinizing)

______ hormone stimulates females to ovulate and males to produce testosterone.

ADH (antidiuretic hormone), diabetes insipidus

Hyposecretion of ______ will result in the excretion of very dilute urine, a symptom of ______ ______.

dwarfism

Pituitary ______ results from insufficient hGH secretion during an individual's growth phase.

???

The anabolic effects of ______ ______ hormone are widespread because of the number of cells with hormone receptors.

acromegaly

Carpal tunnel, arthritis, dense bones, and enlarged soft tissues are related to ________.

osmoreceptors

What receptors trigger the release of ADH?

isthmus

The anterior connection between the two lobes of the thyroid is the ________.

thyroglobulin

What protein contributes to the production of thyroid hormone?

TBG (thyroxine-binding globuline)

What protein transports the majority of thyroid hormone in the blood?

basal metabolic rate (BMR)

T3 and T4 alters an individual's metabolism by increasing their ______ ______ ______.

temperature

Because many metabolic reactions release heat, increased nutrient use and ATP production assist with ________.

thyroid

A goiter is an enlarged _________ gland.

congenital hypothyroidism

Insufficient thyroid hormone secretion during childhood causes ______ ______, formerly known as cretinism.

parafollicular, thyroid

Calcitonin is produced by _______ cells of the ______ gland.

calcium

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates blood _______ levels.

calcitriol

The active form of Vitamin D, that acts as a hormone is ________.

PTH (parathyroid hormone)

As blood levels of calcium increase, the levels of __________ decrease.

chromaffin

___________ cells in the adrenal medulla release epinephrine and norepinephrine.

cortex

The zona glomerulosa, fasciculata, and reticularis produce hormones from the ______ region of the adrenal gland.

angiotensinogen, angiotensin

Renin from the kidneys activates _______ to become ______ I.

increase, Na+, water

Aldosterone released from the adrenal cortex ________ blood pressure by encouraging the reabsorption of ______ and ______ from the kidneys.

Na+, K+

A patient with elevated levels of aldosterone would be expected to have a decreased urine _____ level due to the excretion of ______.

androgens / gonadocorticoids

After menopause, women receive most of their estrogen from the conversion of ______ to estrogen.

addison

Decreased cortisol, decreased aldosterone, low blood glucose, low blood pressure, low blood Na+ and high blood K+ would most likely indicate _________ disease.

adrenal medulla

Pheochromocytoma is a rare, but usually benign tumor of the ________ ________.

pancreatic islets or islets of langerhans

Endocrine cells in the pancreas are contained within ______ ______.

F

Pancreatic polypeptide is secreted from ____ cells of the pancreas.

insulin

Pancreatic beta cells secrete _________.

glucagon

________ is the antagonist of insulin.

interstital fluid

Circulating-hormones are secreted into the ______ ______ and then into the bloodstream

follicle stimulating (FSH)

______ ______ hormone stimulates both male and female gonads to develop reproductive cells.

cAMP (cyclic AMP)

A common 2nd messenger activated by a G protein in the cytoplasm is ______.

thymus

Thymosin is produced by the ______ and assists the immune system by influencing the proliferation and maturation of immune cells.

exhaustion

The general adaptation response stages include fight-or-flight, resistance reaction, and ________.

cortisol

Among the functions of the adrenal cortex in the stress response is the release of _______, the main glucocorticoid.

primary

The pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pineal glands are all the ________ organs of the endocrine system

secondary

The hypothalamus, thymus, pancreas, ovaries, testes, kidneys, stomach, liver, small intestine, skin, heart, and placenta are all _________ organs of the endocrine system

hormone

A __________ is a mediator molecule secreted from one part of the body that circulates via the body fluids to cells in another part of the body.

target cells

__________ _______ are the specific cells of the body that have receptors for hormones

hormones

___________ function to regulate the chemical composition and volume of the blood, metabolism and energy balance, contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle fibers, glandular secretion, growth and development, reproduction, sleep-wake cycles, and some immune functions.

norepinephrine

Several mediators act as both neurotransmitters and hormones. One familiar example is ______________, which is released as a neurotransmitter by sympathetic postganglionic neurons and as a hormone by chromaffin cells of the adrenal medullae.

proteins

Hormone receptors are simply cellular ________

down regulation

If a hormone is present in excess, the number of target-cell receptors may decrease—an effect called _______-________.

up regulation

When a hormone is deficient, the number of receptors may increase. This phenomenon, known as ____-___________

circulating

Most endocrine hormones are _________ hormones—they pass from the secretory cells that make them into interstitial fluid and then into the blood

local

Other hormones, termed ______ hormones, act locally on neighboring cells or on the same cell that secreted them without first entering the bloodstream

paracrines

Local hormones that act on neighboring cells are called __________

autocrines

Local hormones that act on the same cell that secreted them are called __________

autocrines, up regulation

Cancer cells will be _________ and will also increase its sensitivity to hormones through _____-_________ which cause the cells to grow and divide.

lipid soluble

The _____-_______ hormones include steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, and nitric oxide.

Steroid

_________ hormones are derived from cholesterol. Each is unique due to the presence of different chemical groups attached at various sites on the four rings at the core of its structure. These small differences allow for a large diversity of functions.

T3 T4

Two thyroid hormones are synthesized by attaching iodine to the amino acid tyrosine. The benzene ring of tyrosine plus the attached iodines make ____ and ____ very lipid soluble.

nitric oxide

The gas ______ ______ is both a hormone and a neurotransmitter. Its synthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase.

water soluble

The _______-_______ hormones include amine hormones, peptide and protein hormones, and eicosanoid hormones.

Amine

________ hormones are synthesized by decarboxylating (removing a molecule of CO2) and otherwise modifying certain amino acids. They are called amines because they retain an amino group (—NH3+). The catecholamines—epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine—are synthesized by modifying the amino acid tyrosine. Histamine is synthesized from the amino acid histidine by mast cells and platelets. Serotonin and melatonin are derived from tryptophan.

Peptide

_________ hormones and protein hormones are amino acid polymers. The smaller peptide hormones consist of chains of 3 to 49 amino acids; the larger protein hormones include 50 to 200 amino acids. Examples of peptide hormones are antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin; protein hormones include human growth hormone and insulin. Several of the protein hormones, such as thyroid-stimulating hormone, have attached carbohydrate groups and thus are glycoprotein hormones.

eicosanoid

The __________ hormones are derived from arachidonic acid, a 20-carbon fatty acid. The two major types of are prostaglandins and leukotrienes. They are important local hormones, and they may act as circulating hormones as well.

Adrenal cortex

Aldosterone, cortisol, and androgens is secreted from _______ _______

Kidneys

Calcitriol is secreted from _________

blood vessels

Nitric oxide (NO) are secreted from _________ _______

adrenal cortex

Epinephrine and norepinephrine (catecholamines) are secreted from _________ ________

pineal gland

Melatonin is secreted from _________ ________

posterior pituitary

Oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone are secreted from __________ __________

anterior pituitary

Human growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, melanocyte-stimulating hormone are secreted from ________ __________

pancreas

Insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide is secreted from ___________

parathyroid glands

Parathyroid hormone is secreted from __________ _________

Thyroid gland (parafollicular cells)

Calcitonin is secreted from __________ _________

Kidneys

Erythropoietin is/ secreted from __________

transport

Most water-soluble hormone molecules circulate in the watery blood plasma in a "free" form (not attached to other molecules), but most lipid-soluble hormone molecules are bound to ________ proteins.

transport

Function of ________ proteins are they make lipid-soluble hormones temporarily water-soluble, thus increasing their solubility in blood. They retard passage of small hormone molecules through the filtering mechanism in the kidneys, thus slowing the rate of hormone loss in the urine. They provide a ready reserve of hormone, already present in the bloodstream.

lipid-soluble, gene, RNA

A free ______-_______ hormone molecule diffuses from the blood, through interstitial fluid, and through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane into a cell.
If the cell is a target cell, the hormone binds to and activates receptors located within the cytosol or nucleus. The activated receptor-hormone complex then alters ______ expression: It turns specific genes of the nuclear DNA on or off.
As the DNA is transcribed, new messenger _____ (mRNA) forms, leaves the nucleus, and enters the cytosol. There, it directs synthesis of a new protein, often an enzyme, on the ribosomes.

lipid-soluble

What kind of diffusion is this?

water-soluble, cyclic AMP, kinases

The first 3 steps: A _______-______ hormone (the first messenger) diffuses from the blood through interstitial fluid and then binds to its receptor at the exterior surface of a target cell's plasma membrane. The hormone-receptor complex activates a membrane protein called a G protein. The activated G protein in turn activates adenylate cyclase.
Adenylate cyclase converts ATP into ______ _____ (cAMP). Because the enzyme's active site is on the inner surface of the plasma membrane, this reaction occurs in the cytosol of the cell.
Cyclic AMP (the second messenger) activates one or more protein _______, which may be free in the cytosol or bound to the plasma membrane. A protein kinase is an enzyme that phosphorylates (adds a phosphate group to) other cellular proteins (such as enzymes). The donor of the phosphate group is ATP, which is converted to ADP.

phosphorylate, physiological, off

In the 3 steps: Activated protein kinases __________ one or more cellular proteins. Phosphorylation activates some of these pro-teins and inactivates others, rather like turning a switch on or off.
Phosphorylated proteins in turn cause reactions that produce ___________ responses. Different protein kinases exist within different target cells and within different organelles of the same target cell. Thus, one protein kinase might trigger glycogen synthesis, a second might cause the breakdown of triglyceride, a third may promote protein synthesis, and so forth. As noted in step 4, phosphorylation by a protein kinase can also inhibit certain proteins. For example, some of the kinases unleashed when epinephrine binds to liver cells inactivate an enzyme needed for glycogen synthesis.
After a brief period, an enzyme called phosphodiesterase inactivates cAMP. Thus, the cell's response is turned ____ unless new hormone molecules continue to bind to their receptors in the plasma membrane.

Water Soluble

What kind of diffusion is this?

increased

Many hormones exert at least some of their physiological effects through the ________ synthesis of cAMP. Examples include antidiuretic hormone (ADH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), glucagon, epinephrine, and hypothalamic-releasing hormones

decreases

In other cases, such as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH), the level of cyclic AMP __________ in response to the binding of a hormone to its receptor.

negative feedback

Most hormone systems work via _________ _________

receptors, interpretation center, response

For the negative feedback to function correctly, there must be __________ for the stimulus, ____________ ___________, and an initiated ___________

responsivness

The __________ of a target cell to a hormone depends on (1) the hormone's concentration, (2) the abundance of the target cell's hormone receptors, and (3) influences exerted by other hormones.

permissive effect

Hormones can also interact with each other. In some cases, to get the desired effect, two different hormones must both be present. This is referred to as a ___________ __________

synergistic effect

If twp hormones dictate similar actions and they work together to create an even more powerful result, this is a _____________ ___________

antagonistic effect

Because most hormones work as part of a negative feedback system, there are other hormones that oppose their actions. If a one hormone opposes the action of another, this is termed as an ____________ __________.

hypophysis

For many years, the pituitary gland or __________ was called the "master" endocrine gland because it secretes several hormones that control other endocrine glands.

hypothalamus

The pituitary gland itself has a master, the ___________

infundibulum

The pituitary gland attaches to the hypothalamus by a stalk, the _____________

adenohypophysis, distalis, tuberalis

The anterior pituitary (anterior lobe), also called the ____________, accounts for about 75% of the total weight of the gland. The anterior pituitary consists of two parts in an adult: The pars _______ is the larger portion, and the pars ________ forms a sheath around the infundibulum

neurohypophysis, nervosa

The posterior pituitary (posterior lobe) , also called the ____________, also consists of two parts: the pars _________, the larger bulbar portion, and the infundibulum.

oxytocin, ADH

To stimulate the neurohypophysis, the hypothalamus sends nerve impulses to the neurohypophysis. These nerue impulses stimulate the neurohypophysis to secrete
_________ and _________

posterior pituitary, infundibulum, anterior pituitary

Lable 1-3

axons, produce, hypothalamus

The posterior pituitary or neurohypophlais consists of special _______ and axon terminals from neurosecretory neurons. The posterior pituitary does not __________ any hormones. The hormones from the posterior pituitary are produced by neurosecretory cells within nuclei of the ____________ and secreted down the axons with vesicles to be stored and later released frorn the posterior pituitary.

releasing

Hormones from the hypothalamus that stimulate the
release of hormones from the adenohypophysis are called ___________ hormones

inhibiting

Hormones from the hypothalamus that inhibit the release of hormones from the adenohypophysls are called __________ hormones

tropic

Hormones from the adenohypophysis that act on
other endocrine glands are called __________ hormones

Somatotrophs

__________ secrete human growth hormone (hGH) or somatotropin

insulinlike growth factors

Human growth hormone in turn stimulates several tissues to secrete __________ __________ _________ or (IGFs), hormones that stimulate general body growth and regulate aspects of metabolism

Thyrotrophs

___________ secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin

thyroid stimulating hormone

__________ _________ _________ or (TSH) controls the secretions and other activities of the thyroid gland.

Gonadotrophs

_____________ secrete two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)

follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone

__________ __________ __________ (FSH) and __________ ___________ (LH) both act on the gonads. They stimulate secretion of estrogens and progesterone and the maturation of oocytes in the ovaries, and they stimulate sperm production and secretion of testosterone in the testes.

Lactotrophs

____________ secrete prolactin (PRL), which initiates milk production in the mammary glands.

prolactin

__________ (PRL) is secreted by lactotrophs

Corticotrophs

___________ secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticotropin

adrenocorticotropic, melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Corticotrophs secrete ____________ hormone (ACTH) or corticotropin, which stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids such as cortisol. Some corticotrophs, remnants of the pars intermedia, also secrete __________ _________ ________ (MSH).

Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)/somatostatin.

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as somatocrinin is inhibited by:

Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is inhibited by:

Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) aka dopamine

Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH); TRH is inhibited by:

dopamine

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is inhibited by:

hypersecretion, hyposecretion

A patient's symptoms will always imply an over-production (___________) or underproduction (___________), but there are a number of possibilities that can cause these
symptoms.

hyposecretion

Decreased hormone receptors, second-messenger system defects, lack of hormone precursors, degraded hormones, poor blood flow (ischemia) and too little hormone production are all signs of _____________

hypersecretion

Tumors of endocrine origin-causing excess hormone release, benign or malignant, absence of normal feeback loops and excessive hormone production are all signs of _____________

Pituitary dwarfism

____________ ___________ is caused by hyposecretion of hGH during childhood. Without hGH, the epiphyseal plates will
close before the chiid achieves a normal adult height. The deficient growth of tissue will affect all of the body systems; however, the child will have normal body proportions.

Giantism, tumor

_________ is caused by hypersecretion of hGH during childhood, Overall body proportions will remain the consistent, but the patient willbe very tal1. The main cause is a _________ of the anterior pituitary.

Acromegaly, hGH

___________ is a disorder caused by excessive HGH secretion; the problem occurs during adulthood after a person is done growing. After epiphyseal plate closure, one ceases to grow linearly, but tissues don't cease to grow. Under the influence of ______, bones can become
thicker and denser and tissues of the eyelids, tongue, nose,lips, and skin can enlarge. The enlargement of these tissues can cause circulatory, nerve, and skin problems.

Human growth hormone (hGH), somatotropin

_________ __________ ________ (hGH)or ___________stimulates liver, muscle, cartilage, bone, and other tissues to synthesize and secrete insulinlike growth factors (IGFs); IGFs promote growth of body cells, protein synthesis, tissue repair, lipolysis, and elevation of blood glucose concentration

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyrotropin

____________ __________ ___________ (TSH) or ______________stimulates the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

____________ __________ __________ (FSH) in females, initiates development of oocytes and induces ovarian secretion of estrogens. In males, stimulates testes to produce sperm.

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

____________ __________ (LH) in females, stimulates secretion of estrogens and progesterone, ovulation, and formation of corpus luteum. In males, stimulates testes to produce testosterone.

Prolactin (PRL)

___________ (PRL) together with other hormones, promotes milk secretion by the mammary glands

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticotropin

________________ __________ (ACTH) or ____________Stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol) by the adrenal cortex.

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

_______________ ____________ __________ (MSH) exact role in humans is unknown but may influence brain activity; when present in excess, can cause darkening of skin.

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