Introduction to the Human Body - Anatomy & Physiology

103 terms by sischo555 

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Anatomy

the scientific study of the structures or morphology of organisms and their parts

Physiology

the scientific study of the functions or processes of living things

Cells

basic living units of all organisms

Tissues

cells with similar structure and function that are grouped together as tissues

Organs

two or more tissue types that together form a complex structure and work together to perform one or more functions

Body Systems

consists of several organs that work together to accomplish a set of functions

Total Organism

most complex level which is made up of several systems that work together to sustain life

Metabolism

includes all chemical reactions that occur in the body

Responsiveness

concerned with detecting changes in the internal or external environment and reacting to that change, the act of sensing a stimulus and responding to it

Differentation

developmental process by which unspecialized cells change into specialized cells with distinctive structural and functional characteristics - through differentiation cells turn into tissues and organs

Excretion

a process that removes waste products of digestion and metabolism from the body ~ gets rid of by-products that the body does not use

Homeostasis

refers to the constant internal environment that must be maintained for the cells of the body

Stressor

a stimulus that disrupts the homeostatic balance in the body

Negative Feedback System

this mechanism keeps variation within the body at a normal range working like a thermostat connected to a furnace

Positive Feedback System

this mechanism stimulates or amplifies change

Palpation

to examine or explore by touching

Axilla

armpit

Popliteal

behind the knee

Brachii

arm

Dorsal

posterior

Volar

of or pertaining to the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot

Sural

calf

Artery

carries blood away from the heart, you can find the pulse points here

Veins

carry blood to the heart and are easily found on the dorsal side of the hand

Lymph Node

any of the gland like masses of tissue in the lymphatic vessels containing cells that become lymphocytes

Bursae

small fluid filled sacs that reduce friction between two structures, found at the joints

Adipose Tissue

fatty connective tissue

Articulation or Joint

point of contact between two bones

Tendons

attach muscle to bone

Ligaments

attach bone to bone

Lordotic

bends anteriorly

Kyphotic

bends posteriorly (hunchback)

Prime Mover

muscle that performs an action

Synergist

muscle that assists the prime mover

Antagonist

muscle that works against the prime mover

Active Movement

movement that is performed solely by your partner or client

Passive Movement

your client or partner relaxes while you move the body

Resisted Movement

requires both of you to act together to produce movement ~ your client attempts to perform and action against your gentle resistance

Action (Muscles)

the action the muscle performs

Origin (Muscles)

the less moveable bone where the muscle originates

Insertion (Muscles)

the more movable bone where the muscle inserts

Nerve Innervation (Muscle)

details the nerve that feeds the muscle or body part

Superior (Anatomical Term)

closer to the head

Inferior (Anatomical Term)

closer to the feet

Anterior (Anatomical Term)

front

Posterior (Anatomical Term)

back

Medial (Anatomical Term)

pertaining to closer to the midline

Lateral (Anatomical Term)

pertaining to away from the midline

Distal (Anatomical Term)

further from the trunk of the body

Proximal (Anatomical Term)

closer to the trunk of the body

Superficial (Anatomical Term)

close to the surface

Deep (Anatomical Term)

structure deeper in the body

Visceral (Anatomical Term)

organ (smooth)

Prone (Anatomical Term)

face down

Supine (Anatomical Term)

face up

Extension (Anatomical Term)

movement that opens or straightens a joint

Flexion (Anatomical Term)

movement that bends the joint closer together

Adduction (Anatomical Term)

adding to the midline of the body

Abduction (Anatomical Term)

taking away from the body midline

Medial Rotation (Anatomical Term)

limbs turn toward midline

Lateral Rotation (Anatomical Term)

limbs turn away from the midline

Rotation (Anatomical Term)

left and right movement along a transverse plane

Circumduction (Anatomical Term)

cone shaped movement (backstroke)

Lateral Flexion (Anatomical Term)

head or vertebral column bend to one side

Supination (Anatomical Term)

carry a bowl of soup

Pronation (Anatomical Term)

spill the soup

Opposition (Anatomical Term)

cross pinky to thumb (all fingers)

Inversion (Anatomical Terms)

elevates medial side of the foot

Eversion (Anatomical Term)

elevates lateral side of the foot

Plantar Flexion (Anatomical Term)

stand on toes

Dorsi Flexion (Anatomical Term)

stand on heels

Protraction (Anatomical Term)

to protrude (bulldog)

Retraction (Anatomical Term)

to retreat (overbite)

Elevation (Anatomical Term)

movement superiorly

Depression (Anatomical Term)

movement inferiorly

Deviation (Anatomical Term)

wander from usual course (chewing)

Fascia

deep connective tissue - continuous sheet of fibrous membrane located beneath the skin and around muscles and organs, extending through out the body from head to toe

Superficial Fascia

located immediately deep to the skin and covers the entire body

Deep Fascia

more complex - it surrounds the muscle bellies, holds them together and separates them into functional groups, and it also fills spaces between the muscles

Deep Fascia

more complex - it surrounds the muscle bellies, holds them together and separates them into functional groups, and it also fills spaces between the muscles

Aponeurosis

broad flat sheet of connective tissue that connects one muscle to another or a muscle to a bone

Thoracolumbar Aponeurosis

broad flat tendon stretching across the thorax and lumbar region ~ it is thick, diamond shaped and is an anchor for several muscles including the Latissimus Dorsi and the Erector Spinae group

Linea Alba

an abdominal wall muscle that is in the anterior midline that forms the white line ~ a sheet of connective tissue that extends from the xiphoid process to the pubic symphisis and serves as an attachment site for the abdominal muscles

Retinaculum

structure that holds an organ or tissue in place ~ it is a transverse thickening of the deep fascia which straps tendons down to a particular position

Iliotibial Tract (IT Band)

superficial sheet of fascia with vertical fibers that run along the lateral thigh serving as a strong stabilizer for the hip and knee

Interosseous Membrane

thin strong fibrous sheet that binds the forearm bones together and forms as an attachment site for muscles

Inguinal Ligament

ligament that serves as an attachment site for the lower portion of the external oblique muscles and is located in the pelvic region ~ it connects the anterior superior iliac spine to the pubic tubercle

Ligament Nuchae

finlike sheet of connective tissue that runs along the Sagittal plane from the external occipital protuberance (EOP) to the spinous processes of C7 in the neck ~ it is an attachment site for superficial muscles of the posterior neck such as the Trapezius and the Splenius

Pes Anserinus Tendon

the Gracilis, Sartorius, and Semitendinosus all merge together to form this tendon

Menisci of the Knee

fibrocartilage discs attached to the tibial condyles and are important for weight distribution and friction reduction

Appendicular Skeleton

126 Bones ~ consists of the free appendages and their gridles (pelvis bones)

Axial Skeleton

80 Bones ~ consists of the skull, thorax, ribs, spine, sacrum, and tailbone

Sagittal Plane (Planes of the Body)

divides the body into left and right halves

Frontal Plane (Planes of the Body)

divides the body into anterior and posterior portions

Transverse Plane (Planes of the Body)

divides the body into upper and lower parts

Ball & Socket (Joints)

circumduction (glenohumeral joint)

Hinge (Joint)

allows only flexion and extension (elbow)

Gliding (Joint)

between two flat surfaces (carpal and tarsal bones)

Ellipsoid (Joint)

permits flexion, extension, abduction and adduction (radio carpal joint)

Saddle (Joint)

bones of the wrist between the carpals and metacarpals

Pivot (Joints)

allows rotation between the 1st & 2nd cervical vertebrae at the atlantoaxial joint

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