State Lab Test for Friday Living Environment

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In a DNA molecule, the letters, A,T,C and G represent
a. bases
b. sugars
c. starches
d. proteins

a. bases

The individuality of an organism is determined by the the organism's
a. amino acids
b. nitrogen bases
c. DNA base sequence
d. order of ribosomes

c. DNA base sequence

What is the role of DNA molecule in the synthesis of proteins?
a. they catalyze the formation of bonds between amino acids.
b. they determine the sequence of amino acids in a protein
c. they transfer amino acids from the cytoplasm to the nucleus
d. they supply energy for protein synthesis

b. they determine the sequence of amino acids in a protein

DNA-->Process A --> Messenger molecule-->Process B --> Proteins--> Cell Components & Enzymes

a. ribosome
b. nucleus
c. vacuole
d.cell membrane

b. nucleus

DNA-->Process A --> Messenger molecule-->Process B --> Proteins--> Cell Components & Enzymes

Within a living cell, which organelles are directly necessary for process B to occur?
a. ribosome
b. mitochondria
c. vacuoles
d. cell membranes

a. ribosome

In all living cells, DNA controls cellular activities by
a. determining the order of amino acids in protein molecules
b. regulating the concentration of molecules on both sides of the cell membrane.
c. varying the rates of starch synthesis
d. coordinating active and passive transport.

a. determining the order of amino acids in proteins.

The sequence of amino acids that makes up protein molecules is determined by the sequence of
a. bases in DNA
b. glucose in DNA
c. ribosomes in the cytoplasm
d. chloroplasts in the vacuoles

a. bases in DNA

In DNA, the base represented by an A always pairs with the base represented by
a. A.
b. T
C. C
D G

b T

The presence of DNA is important for cellular metabolic activities because DNA
a. directs the production enzymes
b. is a structural component of cell membrane
c.directly increases the solubility of nutrients
d. is a major component of the cytoplasm

a. directs the production enzymes

Assume that a section of double stranded DNA contains 100 base pairs, If 40, of the pairs contain base C, how many of the pairs would contain base A?

Sixty pairs would contain base A

Hereditary information for most traits is generally located in
a. genes found on chromosomes
b. chromosomes found on genes
c. the ribosomes found on sperm cells
d the mitochondria in the cytoplasm

c. the ribosomes found on sperm cells

The diagram represents a portion of DNA
A
T
C
G
T
A
Which DNA strand could correctly pair with the one illustrated

a. G<C<A<T<C<G
b T<A<G<C<A<T
c.A<T<G<C<A<T
d.C<A<T<G<A<C

b T<A<G<C<A<T

Which statement could be used as evidence to show that two different species of organisms most likely develop from a single, common ancestor?
a.They eat the same types of food
b. they have different digestive enzymes
c. they lived during the same time period
d.they contain similar amino acids

d.they contain similar amino acids

The best scientific explanation for differences in structure, function, and behavior found in different species or organisms is provided by
a. carbohydrate electrophoresis
b. population chromatography
c. the theory of carrying capacity
d. the theory of evolution

d. the theory of evolution

The fact that an organism cannot live without interacting with its surroundings is a basic concept in the field of study known as
a. ecology
b. evolution
c. behavior
d. technology

a. ecology

As the number of insect species declined due to spraying, the blueberry production decreased. Explain how these two events might be related even though the pesticide did not land directly on the blueberry plants

The pesticide killed the bees and other insects that pollinate the flowers. Without pollination of the flowers, no berries would form.

Explain why medical researchers are concerned when biodiversity of an ecosystem decreases

As we lose biodiversity, we lose organisms that might have been a source of medicines to treat or cure human disease.

A forest community is made up of thousand of species of organisms and can exist practically unchanged for hundreds of years. This stability is due to the
a. diversity of organism present
b. abundance of insects that feed on plants
c.changes in the climate of the area
d. lack of decomposers in the forest

a. diversity of organism present

Provide two reasons why it is important to preserve biodiversity

One reason why it is important to preserve biodiversity is that biodiversity contributes to keeping ecosystems stable. Another reason is that many organisms might contain substances that could provide future treatment or cures for diseases, and we may lose such organisms if we do not protect the biodiversity of Earth's ecosystem

Describe two ways in which the destruction of the rain forest in South America could affect a hospital patient in New York

The rainforest produce a lot of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere. They also contain a great diversity of animals and plants. We have been able to discover medicines that have been very useful in treating human diseases. Destruction of the rainforest species could mean we never get a chance to discover some of the potential medicines or cures they contain.

While focusing on a microscope on high power, a student crushed the coverslip. The student
probably
a. shut the light off
b. turned up the light intensity
c. rotated the eyepiece
d. used the coarse adjustment

d. used the coarse adjustment

When viewed with a compound light microscope , which letter would best illustrate the way in which the microscope inverts and reverses the image
1. A
2.W
3. F
4. D

3. F

Gel electrophoresis is a technique used to
a. cut DNA into pieces of vaious sizes
b. separate DNA fragments by charge and size
b. move DNA fragments from one species to another
c. make copies of chromosomes

b. separate DNA fragments by charge and size

A student views some cheek cells under low power. Before switching to high power , the student should
a. adjust the eyepiece
b. center image being viewed
c. increase the magnification
d. remove the coverslip from the slide

b. center image being viewed

A student is viewing a single-celled organism under low-power objective of a compound light microscope . Describe an adjustment the student would need to make to see the organism clearly after switching from low power to hight power. In your description include the name of the part of the microscope that would be used to make the adjustment.

The student could adjust the fine focus with the fine adjustment knob, or adjust the disk diaphragm to let more light pass through the specimen.

During exercise the heart beats faster to
a. carry digestive juices to small intestine
b. provide muscles with additional oxygen
c. lower the blood pressure
d.digest more food

c. lower the blood pressure

A new drug for the treatment of asthma is tested on 100 people. The people are evenly divided into two groups. One group is given the drug, and the other groups is given a glucose pill. The group that is given the glucose pill serves as
a. experimental group
b. limiting factor
c. control
d. indicator

c. control

Describe the function of the control group in an experiment.

The control group provides a basis for comparison. It established reference point from where you know what happens to the control group to what happens with the experimental group.

A student wants to shorten the ripening time for tomato plants. He predicts that the more water the plants receive, the faster they will ripen. To test this prediction he grows 20 tomato plants in a garden with full sunlight that has dry soil, and 20 tomato plants in a garden with in a shadier location where there is greater moisture content in the soil. He then records the time it takes for tomatoes to ripen on the plants in each garden location.

State a serious error that the student made with the design of this experiment

The student varied both the amount of light and the amount of moisture, so the reason for any differences in ripening time between the two groups cannot be determined.

In attempting to demonstrate the effectiveness of a new vaccine, a scientist performed these experimental procedures:
*One hundred genetically similar rats were divided into two groups of 50 rat each( group A and group B)
*Each rat in group A was given an injection of the vaccine in a glucose and water solution
* Each rat in group B was given an injection of the glucose and water solution containing no vaccine.
*After several weeks , all rats in both groups were exposed to the disease for which the vaccine was developed.

Identify the dependent variable that studied in this experiment

The dependent variable is the effectiveness of the vaccine: how many rats get sick or do not get sick

A student conducted an original, well designed experiment, carefully following proper scientific procedure.. In order for the conclusion to become generally accepted, the experiment must
a. contain several experimental variables
b. support the original hypothesis
c. be repeated to verify the reliability of the data
d. be conducted by a scientist

c. be repeated to verify the reliability of the data

A student tossed a coin five times and observed results of four tails and one head. He concluded that when a coin is tossed, there is an 80% chance of getting a tail and a 20% chance of getting a head. The conclusion would be more valid if
a. only two tosses of the coin had been used.
b. the weight of the coin had been taken into consideration
c. a greater number of tosses had been used
d. the surface of the coin landed on had been taken in consideration.

c. a greater number of tosses had been used

To investigate the effect of a substance on plant growth, 2 bean plants of the same species were grown under identical conditions with Substance X added to the soil of one of the plants. At the end of 2 weeks, the plant grown with Substance X was 12.5 cm tall. The plant grown without Substance X was 12.2cm tall. The researcher concluded that the presence of Substance X causes the plants to grow taller.

State one reason why this conclusion may not be valid.

The difference of height of the two plants was so small that that it could be due to genetic differences. More plants should have been used to make the conclusion more valid

The process of natural selection is based on the assumption that
a. environmental changes will cause change in body structure in individuals
b. most changes from generation to generation are the result of mutations.
c. part of the population of organisms always remain stable
d.different traits inherited by offspring have different survival value

d.different traits inherited by offspring have different survival value

Which statement is not included as part of our modern understanding of evolution?
a. sexual reproduction and mutations provide variations among offspring
b. traits are transmitted by genes and chromosomes
c. more offspring are produced than can possibly survive
d. There is little competition between species

d. There is little competition between species

How does natural selection operate to cause change in a population?
a. the members of the population are equally able to survive environment change.
b. the members of the population differ so that only some survive when the environment changes
c. the members of the population cause environmental changes and adapt tothem.
d. all the members of the population adapt to environmental changes.

b. the members of the population differ so that only some survive when the environment changes

A trait with low survival value to the members of a population will most likely
a. undergo a series of mutations in succeeding generations.
b. cause the reproductive rate of the individual to increase
c. decrease in frequency from one generation to the next
d. remain unchanged in frequency through many generations.

c. decrease in frequency from one generation to the next

The DNA sequences found in two different species are 95% the same. This suggests these species
a. are evolving into the same species
b. contain identical problems
c. may have similar evolutionary histories
d. have the same number of mutations

c. may have similar evolutionary histories

When two different species live in the same area and use the same limited resources which of the following will occur?
a.competition
b. succession
c. parasitism
d. industrialization

a.competition

Which structure is the boundary between living cell and its environment
a. cell membrane
b.cytoplasm
c.vacuole
d.ribosome

a. cell membrane

In both plant and animal cells , the membrane
a. produces enzymes
b. controls reproduction
c. is composed of sugars
d. regulates diffusion

d. regulates diffusion

A biologist diluted a blood sample with distilled water. While observing the sample with a microscope ,, she noted that the red blood cells had burst. This bursting most likely the result of which process.
a. staining
b. diffusion
c. digestion
d. active transport

b. diffusion

Amino acids tend to diffuse from a blood capillary to the adjacent cell because
a. this is the only direction they can move
b. the brain directs the movement into cells
c. the cell needs the amino acids to make protein
d. the concentration of amino acids is lower in the cell.

d. the concentration of amino acids is lower in the cell.

Cytoplasm in a plant cell will shrink if the cell is
a. placed in a concentrated salt solution
b. kept warm and moist and in medium light
c. placed in distilled water
d.exposed to a different concentration of nitrogen gas

a. placed in a concentrated salt solution

A cell containing 98% water in its cytoplasm is placed in a 2% salt solution. It should
a. lose water
b. gain water
c. neither lose nor gain water
d. gain salt because of the high rate of diffusion

c. neither lose nor gain water

a cell is placed in distilled water and then transferred to a 5% salt solution. As a result of this procedure , the cell would be likekly to
a. get larger
b. get smaller
c. get larger , then smaller
d get smaller, then larger

c. get larger , then smaller

Which statement best describes a cell membrane?
a. it is found only found in animal cells
b. it is a non living structure
c. it controls reproduction in a cell
d. it controls the passage of materials into the cell

d. it controls the passage of materials into the cell

The transfer of specific molecules through cell membranes is an important factor in the process of
a. cytoplasmic flow
b. mitotic division
c. homeostatsis
d. nuclear transfer

c. homeostatsis

After a cookie has been eaten and digested, sugar molecules enter bloodstream by process of
a. active transport
b. diffusion
c. excretion
d. cellular respiration

b. diffusion

The concentration of nitrates is often higher in plant roots than it is in the soil around them. Plants maintain this difference in concentration through
a. active transport
b. diffusion
c. excretion
d. coordination

a. active transport

One reason a fish that lives in the ocean may have trouble living in a freshwater lake is that
a. there are mor carnivores in freshwater habitats
b. salt water hold more dissolved nitrogen than freshwater
c. more photosynthesis occurs in fresh water than in salt water
d. water concentration in the fish is affected by salt level in its environment

d. water concentration in the fish is affected by salt level in its environment

Skin cells from a pond animal and skin cells from a land animal were placed in a solution with a 0.85% concentration of slt. When examined later, the cells of the land animal had shrunk
Explain why the cells responded as they did. In your answer be sure to explain why the pond *animal cells swelled and burst
*the land animal cells got smaller

The cells of the pond organism contained a lower concentration of water and more salt than the salt solution. Therefore, the water moved from the outside environment (where there was a higher water concentration) to the inside of the cells (where there was lower water concentration) and caused the the cell to swell. The land organism's cells contained a higher concentration of water and a lower concentration of salt than the surrounding water, therefore, water diffused out of the cells make them shrink.

People sometimes use large quantities of salt to preserve food.The salt kills bacteria that would otherwise cause the food to spoil. Based on your knowledge of diffusion ,explain how the salt kills the bacteria.

Salt is a good preservative because it causes the water to diffuse out of bacterial cells, and the dehydrations kills them. Salt causes this to happen because the concentration of water inside of the bacterial cells is greater than it is in the highly salty environment outside; therefore , water diffuses out. The food does not spoil because there are no living bacteria around to cause spoilage.

Which piece of laboratory equipment would be used to most accurately measure the volume of a liquid.
a beaker
b. balance
c. test tube
d. graduated cylinder

d. graduated cylinder

When preparing a wet-mount slide of onion cells, a student put a drop of Lugol's iodine stain was added to
a. prevent the formation of air bubbles
b. make cell structures more visible
c. increase the magnification
d. increase the rate of photosynthesis in the cells

b. make cell structures more visible

Bromthymol blue turns yellow in the presence of carbon dioxide. This characteristic makes it possible for bromthymol blue to function as
a.a measure of volume
b.an indicator
c.a catalyst
d. an energy source

b.an indicator

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