a project started by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) in 1969 as both an experiment in reliable networking and a means to link DoD and military research contractors, including a large number of universities doing military-funded research.
a wireless communications specification that describes how cell phones, computers, faxes, printers, and other electronic devices can be interconnected over distances of 10-30 feet at a rate of about 2 Mbps.
a telecommunications system in which a very high rate of data exchange is possible.
Cascading Style Sheet (CSS)
a markup language for defining the visual design of a Web page or group of pages.
the processing alternative in which all processing occurs in a single location or facility.
the rate at which data is exchanged over a communication channel usually measured in bits per second (bps).
an architecture in which multiple computer platforms are dedicated to special functions, such as database management, printing, communications, and program execution.
the communications media, devices, and software needed to connect two or more computer systems or devices.
a method for transferring multimedia files over the Internet so that the data stream of voice and pictures plays more or less continuously without a break (or very few of them); enables users to browse large files in real time.
the processing alternative in which processing devices are placed at various remote locations.
the processing alternative in which computers are placed at remote locations but are connected to each other via a network.
Extensible Markup Language (XML)
the markup language for Web documents containing structured information, including words, pictures, and other elements.
a network based on Web technologies that links selected resources of a company's intranet with its customers, suppliers, or other business partners.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
a protocol that provides a file transfer process between a host and a remote computer and allows users to copy files from one computer to another.
the codes that let the Web browser know how to format text-as a heading, as a list, or as body text-and whether images, sound, and other elements should be inserted.
highlighted text or graphics in a Web document that, when clicked, opens a new Web page containing related content.
a method that allows two or more individuals to communicate online using the Internet.
Internet Protocol (IP)
a communications standard that enables traffic to be routed from one network to another as needed.
Internet service provider (ISP)
any company that provides individuals or organizations with access to the Internet.
an object-oriented programming language from Sun Microsystems based on C++ that allows small programs (applets) to be embedded within an HTML document.
Local area network (LAN)
a network that connects computer systems and devices within a small area like an office, home, or several floors in a building.
Long Term Evolution (LTE)
- a standard for wireless communications for mobile phones based on packet switching.
Metropolitan area network (MAN)
a telecommunications network that connects users and their devices in a geographical area that spans a campus or city.
Near field communication (NFC)
a very short-range wireless connectivity technology designed for cell phones and credit cards.
Network management software
the software that enables a manager on a networked desktop to monitor the use of individual computers and shared hardware (like printers), scan for viruses, and ensure compliance with software licenses.
Network operating system (NOS)
the systems software that controls the computer systems and devices on a network and allows them to communicate with each other.
Personal area network (PAN)
a network that supports the interconnection of information technology within a range of 33 feet or so.
Rich Internet application (RIA)
software that has the functionality and complexity of traditional application software, but does not require local installation and runs in a Web browser.
a telecommunications device that forwards data packets across two or more distinct networks toward their destinations, through a process known as routing.
anything that carries an electronic signal and interfaces between a sending device and a receiving device.
the process by which VPNs transfer information by encapsulating traffic in IP packets over the Internet.
Ultra wideband (UWB)
A form of short-range communications that employs extremely short electromagnetic pulses lasting just 50 to 1,000 picoseconds that are transmitted across a broad range of radio frequencies of several gigahertz.
the Web as a computing platform that supports software applications and the sharing of information among users.
the software that creates a unique, hypermedia-based menu on a computer screen, providing a graphical interface to the Web.
Web log (blog)
a Web site that people can create and use to write about their observations, experiences, and feelings on a wide range of topics.
a Web page that combines useful information and links and acts as an entry point to the Web—they typically include a search engine, a subject directory, daily headlines, and other items of interest.
server and client software, the hypertext transfer protocol (http), standards, and mark-up languages that combine to deliver information and services over the Internet.