AIS Awesome History Flashcards

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Study questions for Marshall's US History Final

President Nixon supported each of the following liberal programs EXCEPT
a. affirmative action.
b. the Environmental Protection Agency.
c. national health care.
d. the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
e. the Clean Air Act.

c

Nixon called his shifting of responsibility for many social programs from the federal to the state and local levels the
a. New Nationalism.
b. New Deal.
c. Great Society.
d. New Federalism.
e. New Frontier

d

Which of the following was NOT a domestic goal of the Nixon administration?
a. a focus on making the federal bureaucracy more efficient
b. a commitment to shift social problems to the federal government
c. governmental utilization of minorities and women in the work force
d. shifting responsibility for school desegregation to the courts
e. increased revenue sharing between federal, state, county and city governments

b

What was the main focus of the Nixon presidency?
a. foreign policy
b. economics
c. civil rights
d. education
e. military build-up

a

Nixon's program to improve relations with the Soviet Union was known as
a. containment.
b. detente.
c. Arc Light.
d. counterinsurgency.
e. de-escalation.

b

What was the MAIN reason the United States wanted to resume relations with China?
a. The United States believed China could become an important ally.
b. China had asked that diplomatic relations resume.
c. The United States believed it would force better relations with the Soviet Union.
d. The United States wanted to thwart the growing economic power of Japan.
e. China's large population represented an important economic market.

c

The SALT treaties involved
a. the United States' withdrawal from Vietnam.
b. reductions in the number of offensive ballistic missiles.
c. removal of Soviet nuclear weapons from Cuba.
d. preventing war in the Middle East.
e. the collapse of the former Soviet Union.

b

As the 1972 Democratic presidential nominee, ________ was perceived as an anti-establishment candidate.
a. Hubert Humphrey
b. George McGovern
c. Edmund Muskie
d. George Wallace
e. Barry Goldwater

b

The Watergate Scandal
a. demonstrated the strength of America's basic governmental institutions.
b. allowed unchecked presidential authority.
c. involved a lust for money.
d. was conceived by Richard Nixon.
e. uncovered vast corruption in the U.S. Congress.

a

The greatest economic challenge faced by the Nixon administration involved
a. the collapse of the dollar.
b. dramatically increasing international oil prices.
c. the bankruptcy of the Federal Reserve System.
d. the crisis in American farming.
e. rampant unemployment.

b

The Arab oil boycott of 1973-1974 was precipitated by
a. the depression in China.
b. the U.S. invasion of Iran.
c. SALT II.
d. the SALT treaty.
e. the Yom Kippur War.

e

The international oil organization most responsible for raising petroleum prices in the 1970s was
a. SALT.
b. CERT.
c. CREEP.
d. OPEC.
e. ARAB.

d

The most grave consequence of the 1970s oil shock was
a. the collapse of several Arab states.
b. a glut of food world wide.
c. increased industrial growth.
d. initial failure of the fledgling computer industry.
e. inflation throughout America.

e

In the spring of 1980, the prime rate reached ________ percent.
a. 10
b. 12
c. 14
d. 17
e. 20

e

The Equal Rights Amendment
a. was ratified in 1982.
b. required unisex restrooms.
c. was opposed by the National Organization for Women.
d. fell three states short of being ratified.
e. guaranteed abortion on demand.

d

Gerald Ford
a. prosecuted former president Nixon to the full extent of the law.
b. was a graceful and articulate speaker.
c. endorsed control over federal strip mining.
d. was ultimately far more liberal than Nixon in the White House.
e. was the first president not elected to the office of either president or vice president.

e

The Camp David Accords provided a framework for peace negotiations between
a. the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
b. NATO and the Warsaw Pact.
c. Iran and Iraq.
d. Israel and Egypt.
e. the Soviet Union and China.

d

The Cold War remained dormant throughout the 1970s until
a. the United States invaded North Vietnam.
b. the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan.
c. the Chinese invaded South Korea.
d. the Soviet Union invaded China.
e. the Chinese invaded Pakistan.

b

In 1979 revolutionaries in ________ took U.S. diplomats hostage.
a. Iraq
b. Israel
c. Pakistan
d. Iran
e. Afghanistan

d

In 1981, the Reagan administration crushed a strike by the
a. truck drivers.
b. air traffic controllers.
c. airline pilots.
d. coal miners.
e. automobile assembly workers.

b

Jerry Falwell invited Catholics, Jews, Protestants, Mormons, and other conservatives to join his
a. Christian Coalition.
b. Anti-Gay Crusade.
c. Religious Right.
d. Moral Majority.
e. New Right Coalition.

d

The central tenet of Reagan's approach to foreign policy was the belief that
a. the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) represented a serious threat to the United States.
b. trading arms for hostages was an effective way to quietly negotiate with terrorists.
c. the Soviet Union was a deadly enemy that threatened the United States.
d. the Middle East needed United States intervention to achieve freedom.
e. Israel could not be trusted.

c

The Reagan administration's policies in the Middle East and Central America reached a tragic convergence in
a. Nicaragua.
b. El Salvador.
c. Grenada.
d. the Iran-Contra affair.
e. the Iranian hostage crisis.

d

In 1984, ________ became the first woman ever nominated for the vice presidency by a major party.
a. Sandra Day O'Connor
b. Paula Jones
c. Barbara Jordan
d. Geraldine Ferraro
e. Madeleine Albright

d

Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's new policies included
a. perestroika.
b. glasnost.
c. kalyshnikov.
d. dos vedanya.
e. Both A and B.

e

The most difficult issue facing the first Bush administration was
a. the savings and loan disaster.
b. the fall of Red China in 1993.
c. the destruction of the Berlin Wall.
d. the federal budget deficit.
e. the collapse of the Soviet Union.

d

The only significant piece of social legislation to be enacted in the first Bush administration was the
a. Civil Rights Act of 1991.
b. National Health Insurance Act.
c. Social Security Privatization Act.
d. Americans with Disabilities Act.
e. Equal Rights Amendment.

d

Instead of reducing the deficit by $500 billion, the 1990 budget agreement had led to an increase of more than ________ in the national debt during Bush's presidency.
a. $600 billion
b. $1 trillion
c. $900 billion
d. $100 billion
e. $1.5 trillion

b

In 1989, communist regimes toppled in each of the following countries EXCEPT
a. Hungary.
b. East Germany.
c. Romania.
d. North Korea.
e. Poland.

d

Which of the following was NOT a result of the Persian Gulf War?
a. a great personal victory for George Bush
b. the imprisonment of Saddam Hussein
c. an atonement for the failure in Vietnam
d. cheaper gasoline
e. unprecedented approval ratings for the president

b

By 2002, ________ had become the nation's largest ethnic minority.
a. African Americans
b. Asian Americans
c. Hispanics
d. German Americans
e. Pacific Islanders

c

________ was the fastest growing ethnic group at the beginning of the twenty-first century.
a. African Americans
b. Asian Americans
c. Eastern Europeans
d. Hispanic Americans
e. Western Europeans

b

President Clinton's greatest achievement in domestic affairs was
a. the establishment of national health insurance.
b. approval of the North American Free Trade Agreement.
c. the Democratic sweep in the 1994 congressional elections.
d. the elimination of the Social Security system.
e. lowering taxes.

b

Which of the following was NOT a scandal of the Clinton years?
a. Whitewater
b. Travelgate
c. Iran-Contra
d. Paula Jones
e. Monica Lewinsky

c

Bill Clinton was impeached for
a. perjury and obstruction of justice.
b. making unwelcome sexual advances to Paula Jones.
c. having an affair with Monica Lewinsky.
d. selling missile technology to China for campaign contributions.
e. being involved in a crooked real estate scheme in Arkansas.

a

The outcome of the 2000 presidential election hung on legal battles over the vote count in
a. Ohio.
b. Illinois.
c. Florida.
d. California.
e. New Mexico.

c

The largest of several business scandals in the early 2000s was the collapse of
a. AT&T.
b. Enron.
c. WorldCom.
d. Tyco International.
e. Montgomery Ward.

b

The first move in the war on terror was the overthrow of a radical Islamist regime in
a. Iraq.
b. Iran.
c. Pakistan.
d. Afghanistan.
e. Saudi Arabia.

d

The terrorist attacks on the U.S. led the George W. Bush administration to initiate a new global strategy known to its critics as
a. unilateralism.
b. bipolarism.
c. containment.
d. detente.
e. isolationism.

a

Social issues which could be affected by a more conservative Supreme Court include each of the following EXCEPT
a. affirmative action.
b. abortion.
c. black voting rights.
d. gay rights.
e. the teaching of "intelligent design."

c

John F. Kennedy's domestic program was known as the
a. Great Society.
b. New Deal.
c. Fair Deal.
d. New Frontier.
e. Age of Camelot.

d

Which of the following regions was NOT a foreign policy crisis for John F. Kennedy?
a. Southeast Asia
b. Berlin
c. Mexico
d. Cuba
e. Soviet Union

c

John F. Kennedy's plan to balance out nuclear capability with conventional military strength was known as
a. the New Look.
b. the New Deal.
c. flexible response.
d. massive retaliation.
e. total coverage.

c

Under John F. Kennedy, the United States government
a. decided to support the Ho Chi Minh government.
b. reduced American involvement in Vietnam.
c. increased the number of military advisers in Vietnam.
d. maintained levels of support in Vietnam roughly equal to those established by Eisenhower.
e. began large-scale military operations in Southeast Asia.

c

The ________ was Kennedy's most obvious foreign policy disaster.
a. Bay of Pigs invasion
b. Cuban Missile Crisis
c. Vietnam War
d. Berlin Crisis of 1961
e. Monroe Affair

a

President Kennedy's most controversial Cabinet appointment involved his choice for
a. secretary of state.
b. attorney general.
c. secretary of defense.
d. secretary of transportation.
e. secretary of the interior.

b

John F. Kennedy played down civil rights legislation because he
a. feared alienating Southern Democrats.
b. was secretly a racist.
c. did not want to offend conservative African-American leaders.
d. did not really see the need for it.
e. was advised to do so by leading cabinet members.

a

The ________ was the most important stimulus for social change in the early 1960s.
a. Supreme Court
b. House of Representatives
c. presidency
d. Senate
e. televised reporting of civil rights abuses

a

The most far-reaching decisions of the Warren Court involved
a. business regulation.
b. abortion.
c. legislative reapportionment.
d. the rights of victims.
e. racial equality.

c

The Civil Rights Act of 1964
a. outlawed racial segregation in public facilities.
b. outlawed racial discrimination in employment.
c. protected the voting rights of African Americans.
d. included gender as an unacceptable basis for discrimination in hiring.
e. all of the above.

e

Lyndon Johnson's domestic program was called the
ç Fair Deal.
b. New Frontier.
c. Great Society.
d. New Deal.
e. War on Poverty.

c

In his program of health care, President Lyndon Johnson secured
a. free health care for all Americans.
b. establishment of the Medicare program for the elderly.
c. federal health care initiatives.
d. a restriction on health benefits for welfare recipients.
e. a free prescription drug program.

b

In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson sent American soldiers to ________ in order to prevent a Communist takeover there.
a. Cuba
b. Argentina
c. the Dominican Republic
d. Lebanon
e. Madagascar

c

Lyndon Johnson's political downfall resulted primarily from
a. his Latin American policy.
b. his obsession with the Vietnam War.
c. the failure of his Great Society.
d. his refusal to be a Cold Warrior.
e. his advocacy of welfare programs.

b

Lyndon Johnson sought the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
a. as a blank check for military escalation in Vietnam.
b. to jump-start the U.S. economy.
c. to place the blame for the war in Vietnam on the shoulders of North Vietnam.
d. to pacify the leadership of South Vietnam.
e. to demonstrate to the North Vietnamese, and his political opponents, his determination to take a tough stance in Vietnam.

e

American bombing of North Vietnam
a. proved an effective strategy in limiting North Vietnam's participation in the war.
b. destroyed North Vietnam's major port facilities at Haiphong.
c. demoralized the North Vietnamese people.
d. generally failed to accomplish anything.
e. impeded communist supply lines.

d

The main premise of General William Westmoreland's strategy in Vietnam was to
a. wage a war of attrition against the Communists.
b. fight a limited war.
c. rely heavily on U.S. naval forces against the Viet Cong.
d. keep the war contained in South Vietnam.
e. fight a defensive war.

a

The most prominent student protest organization was the
a. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
b. Students for a Democratic Society.
c. Yippie movement.
d. Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
e. Young Republicans.

b

For the United States, the turning point of the Vietnam War was the
a. Tet Offensive.
b. battle of Khe Sanh.
c. battle of Dien Bien Phu.
d. siege of Hue.
e. battle of Da Nang.

a

The fundamental disagreement at the beginning of the Cold War involved the question of
a. who would control postwar Europe.
b. sharing the secrets of atomic weapons.
c. free elections in Western Europe.
d. whether Truman or Stalin would lead postwar alliances.
e. who would control post-war Japan.

a

By 1946, Great Britain and the United States were refusing to permit
a. France to invade West Germany.
b. the Soviet Union to take reparations from the industrial western zones of Germany.
c. the nuclear arming of Japan.
d. the Greek invasion of Turkey.
e. the Soviet Union to send arms to Eastern Europe.

b

Soviet bitterness toward the United States immediately after World War II was primarily a result of
a. American threats to take military action against Eastern Europe.
b. broken American promises regarding the future of Berlin.
c. the United States' refusal to provide economic aid to the Soviet Union.
d. personal differences between Truman and Stalin.
e. the United States' presence in West Germany.

c

George Kennan's "containment" policy proposed
a. long-term neutrality for the United States with respect to European affairs.
b. a series of aggressive maneuvers toward the Soviet Union.
c. American vigilance regarding Soviet expansionist tendencies.
d. restrictions on American expansionist plans.
e. keeping nuclear weapons information a closely guarded secret.

c

The Truman Doctrine was developed as a response to problems in
a. Greece and Turkey.
b. Italy and France.
c. Syria and Lebanon.
d. Laos and Vietnam.
e. Hungary and Czechoslovakia.

a

The Marshall Plan proposed
a. the infusion of massive amounts of American capital in Western Europe.
b. the rearming of Germany.
c. a massive military buildup in Europe.
d. a series of Western military alliances.
e. the division of Germany.

a

Overall, the Marshall Plan
a. did little to halt Soviet encroachment in Western Europe.
b. failed as an economic measure.
c. received wholehearted support from the Soviets.
d. generated a broad industrial recovery in Western Europe.
e. had no effect on the U.S. economy.

d

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
a. received little support from European nations.
b. represented a departure from traditional American isolationism.
c. was perceived as nonthreatening by the Soviets.
d. continued the old American tradition of involvement in European alliances.
e. was opposed by the United Nations secretary-general.

b

NATO
a. had the effect of easing U.S.-Soviet tensions.
b. intensified Soviet fears of the West.
c. involved only the United States and major West European powers.
d. failed to radically affect European military strategy.
e. relied exclusively on European forces.

b

The National Security Act of 1947 established the
a. Department of State.
b. Central Intelligence Agency.
c. Truman Doctrine.
d. Marshall Plan.
e. House Un-American Activities Committee.

b

A significant aspect of the American response to the Communist triumph in China was its
a. decision to focus on Japan as its major Asian ally.
b. decision to launch the Korean War.
c. failure to observe other Communist threats in the region.
d. quick recognition of the new regime in China.
e. cessation of diplomatic relations with the Soviets.

a

In the final analysis, the most significant result of the Korean War was
a. the final solution: the division of Korea.
b. the fact that it inhibited the Soviet Union's further expansionism.
c. that it reinforced Truman's popularity with the American people.
d. that it humiliated the United States in the eyes of the world.
e. that it brought about massive American rearmament.

e

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
a. helped the CIA break a Soviet spy ring in the United States.
b. were executed for passing American atomic secrets to the Soviet Union.
c. opposed the Soviet attempt to blockade Berlin.
d. were responsible for exposing Alger Hiss as a communist.
e. admitted their guilt.

b

The leading figure of the Red Scare of the early 1950s was
a. Dwight D. Eisenhower.
b. Joseph McCarthy.
c. Dean Acheson.
d. Richard M. Nixon.
e. Roy Cohn.

b

President Eisenhower's first serious foreign policy crisis came when
a. communist China attacked Formosa.
b. North Korea attacked South Korea.
c. the Frenchasked the U.S. for assistance in Vietnam.
d. Egypt seized the Suez Canal.
e. the Soviet Union cut off land access to Berlin.

d

In 1954, what was the first test of Eisenhower's new policy to contain Chinese communism?
a. Japan
b. Manchuria
c. the Pacific Islands
d. Eastern Europe
e. the Formosa Straits

e

Supporters of the Kellogg-Briand Pact hoped it would
a. achieve immediate international disarmament.
b. establish a Franco-American mutual defense pact.
c. initiate the process of outlawing war.
d. establish a formal alliance between the United States and France.
e. achieve a quick military build-up.

c

During the 1920s, U.S.-Soviet relations were characterized by a combination of
a. diplomatic recognition and increased trade.
b. diplomatic recognition and a trade embargo.
c. diplomatic nonrecognition and increased trade.
d. a formal alliance and substantial trade.
e. a formal alliance and a trade embargo.

c

In 1920, United States forces occupied all of the following, EXCEPT
a. the Dominican Republic.
b. Mexico.
c. Haiti.
d. Nicaragua.
e. the Philippines.

b

The Good Neighbor Policy promised Latin American countries
a. more U.S. military involvement in their affairs.
b. less U.S. interest in Latin America.
c. easy U.S. loans with low rates of interest.
d. closer ties with each other.
e. a cooperative, rather than paternalistic, relationship with the United States.

c

In 1931, the illusion of peace was shattered by the Japanese invasion of
a. Korea.
b. Malaysia.
c. Philippines.
d. Manchuria.
e. Siberia.

d

The naval armaments of the major world powers were significantly reduced
a. at the Washington Disarmament Conference of 1921.
b. in the Kellogg-Briand Pact.
c. by the Treaty of Versailles.
d. by the Eurasian Naval Agreement of 1926.
e. by the Pact of Paris.

a

The weakness of the League of Nations was revealed when Italy invaded
a. Ethiopia.
b. Libya.
c. Egypt.
d. Spain.
e. Greece.

a

Britain and France responded to initial German aggression by
a. attempting to appease Hitler.
b. immediately threatening war.
c. establishing a military alliance with the Soviet Union.
d. seizing German territory.
e. blockading German ports.

a

With the outbreak of war in Europe in 1939, President Roosevelt
a. immediately declared war on Germany.
b. declared American neutrality.
c. loaned massive quantities of war supplies to France and England.
d. warned Germany that if France were attacked, the United States would declare war.
e. made a secret pact with the French.

b

In order to assist the Allies immediately after World War II began, President Roosevelt
a. gave fifty destroyers to the British.
b. placed a total embargo on trade to Nazi Germany.
c. provided lend-lease assistance to the Allies.
d. initiated the first peace time draft in U S. history.
e. gave the British and the French technologically advanced communications systems.

a

The Lend-Lease Act of 1941
a. ensured the British easier access to American war supplies.
b. placed restrictions on which materials the United States could ship to Great Britain.
c. encountered almost no opposition from American congressmen.
d. was proposed by American isolationists.
e. was approved but never implemented.

a

To get American war supplies across the Atlantic, Great Britain
a. relied on the American navy to escort their supply convoys.
b. greatly expanded the size of its merchant marine.
c. utilized American transport planes.
d. temporarily diverted some of its warships to transport duty.
e. used submarines to avoid detection by the Germans.

a

During 1940-1941, President Roosevelt attempted to halt Japanese aggression in Asia by
a. applying economic pressure on Japan through a trade embargo.
b. waging a clandestine, undeclared war against Japanese naval forces in the Pacific.
c. signing mutual defense pacts with other Asian nations.
d. securing legislation allowing him to send troops to China.
e. sending spies to Japan to gather tactical information.

a

In December 1941, the U.S. declared war on Germany because
a. the American people demanded it.
b. of the attack on Pearl Harbor.
c. Germany had invaded Britain.
d. Germany had declared war on the U.S.
e. it seemed like the thing to do.

d

For much of the war, the Allies differed vigorously over
a. whether the Soviet Union should enter the war against Japan.
b. when and where to open the second front against Germany.
c. whether Germany should be forced to surrender unconditionally.
d. which nation should be allowed to enter Berlin first.
e. whether the war with Japan or Germany should take precedent.

b

The so-called "zoot-suit" riots in Los Angeles in 1943 were targeted at
a. Mexican Americans.
b. Italian Americans.
c. African Americans.
d. Native Americans
e. German Americans.

a

By 1932, what percentage of American workers were unemployed?
a. 10
b. 12
c. 25
d. 33
e. 50

c

The social and economic effects of the Depression
a. impacted only the wealthier classes.
b. hit the middle class especially hard.
c. lasted only a few months past 1929.
d. were harsh only in the case of the lower classes.
e. came to light only gradually.

b

Hoover believed that efforts to relieve human suffering
a. would be in accord with previous government policies during economic crises.
b. would bring about inflation.
c. could promote domestic unrest.
d. should come from private charities.
e. would be a sign of weakness.

d

The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was designed to
a. loan money to financial institutions to prevent bankruptcies.
b. stimulate the growth of new business.
c. give direct "doles" to the unemployed.
d. provide direct loans to homeowners
e. fund the construction of cheap housing for the growing number of homeless Americans.

a

Hoover's response to the Depression could best be described as
a. restrained and cautious.
b. innovative and adaptive.
c. humanitarian and pragmatic.
d. socialistically radical.
e. bumbling and uncertain.

a

The bonus army that came to Washington in 1932 was made up of
a. new volunteers.
b. young draftees.
c. WW I veterans who supported Hoover's policies.
d. WW I veterans who lobbied Congress.
e. Civil War veterans seeking
medical aid.

d

The "Hundred Days" was
a. the period between Roosevelt's election and his inauguration.
b. the period immediately after Roosevelt's first inauguration.
c. the last three months of the 1932 campaign.
d. the final days of the Hoover administration.
e. the worst period of the Great Depression.

b

Roosevelt's Hundred Days banking legislation was designed to
a. support strong banks and eliminate the weaker ones.
b. decrease government regulation of U.S. banks.
c. allow the government to take over the banking system.
d. give bankers a place in his government.
e. merge smaller banks with larger ones.

a

During the Hundred Days, Roosevelt did all of the following, except
a. propose government ownership of major industries.
b. close all the banks.
c. institute the Tennessee Valley Authority.
d. create the Agricultural Adjustment Act.
e. call a special session of Congress.

a

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was designed to
a. bring modernization and jobs to desolate areas of the upper rural South.
b. help support the continued control of electrical power by private companies.
c. alienate conservationists.
d. test the authority of the Supreme Court.
e. win votes in a largely Republican area.

a

The National Recovery Administration sought to promote economic recovery by
a. reducing corporate taxes.
b. restoring competition.
c. promoting cooperation between business and labor.
d. implementing classical economic theory.
e. eliminating all taxes.

c

The National Recovery Administration encountered each of the following problems EXCEPT
a. the trade codes were too complex to be enforced easily.
b. the trade codes favored big business over smaller competitors.
c. low minimum wages led to labor disenchantment.
d. companies could easily avoid the collective bargaining requirement.
e. the appeal for patriotic public support fell on deaf ears

e

Criticisms of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration included each of the following EXCEPT
a. its rushed implementation of farm products being destroyed while people in the cities were starving.
b. large farmers benefitting most.
c. millions of tenants and sharecroppers being forced off the land.
d. contributing to Dust Bowl conditions on the Great Plains
e. hastening the decline of the family farm and the rise of large-scale agribusiness.

d

Young men were hired to clear land, plant trees, build bridges, and fish ponds by the
a. TVA.
b. NRA.
c. PWA.
d. WPA.
e. CCC.

e

By 1935, Roosevelt's severest critics were
a. members of the Supreme Court.
b. accusing him of turning the U.S. into a socialist state.
c. demanding more radical reforms.
d. accusing him of ignoring the rise of aggressive military dictatorships in Europe.
e. scolding him for not providing more aid to impoverished blacks.

c

Criticisms of the Social Security Act included each of the following EXCEPT
a. the pension payments were paltry and would not begin until 1942.
b. farmers and domestic servants were not covered.
c. the Social Security trust fund removed money from circulation.
d. it offered nothing to those already out of work.
e. it would transfer over half the national income to less than 10 percent of the population.

e

The National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act
a. guaranteed that all workers would be paid a nationally established minimum wage.
b. granted workers the right to organize and collectively bargain.
c. gave management the right to forbid the "closed shop."
d. gave the president the power to end strikes that
threatened the nation's welfare.
e. did not help workers who were not already unionized.

b

The Congress of Industrial Organizations
a. worked harmoniously with the American Federation of Labor in the 1930s.
b. was solely interested in trade unions.
c. fought hard to include women and African Americans.
d. was opposed by President Roosevelt.
e. promoted the organization of all workers, not just skilled labor, in a given industry.

e

By 1935, the New Deal coalition included support from all of the following EXCEPT
a. organized labor.
b. the urban masses.
c. big business.
d. African Americans.
e. Democrats in the South and West.

c

Roosevelt's "court packing" proposal
a. was perfectly legal.
b. outraged both conservatives and liberals.
c. was effectively blocked by Democratic opposition.
d. badly strained Roosevelt's relations with Congress.
e. all of the above

e

In his second term, Roosevelt was stung by each of the following EXCEPT
a. the failure of national health insurance and anti-lynching legislation.
b. the defeat of minimum wage and maximum hour legislation.
c. a very serious economic relapse known as the "Roosevelt recession."
d. a Republican resurgence in the 1938 elections.
e. the emergence of a conservative congressional coalition which blocked further New Deal legislation after 1938.

b

The German sinking of the ________ in 1915 cost 128 American lives and enraged the American public.

a.Sussex
b.Arabic
c.Reuben James
d.Lusitania
e.Queen Mary

d

American foreign policy between 1901 and 1920
a.was aggressive and nationalistic.
b.was strongly influenced by isolationist tradition.
c.was relatively inactive.
d.did little to reflect the nation's new economic power.
e.was geared toward cooperation and peace.

a

In terms of foreign policy, Theodore Roosevelt
a. did little to foster American aims.
b. reflected the influence of isolationism.
c. sought to prepare the country for its role as a world power.
d. sought to further insulate the United States from foreign affairs
e. was supremely concerned with world peace.

c

The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
a. secured Colombia's permission for the building of the Panama Canal.
b. gave the United States control of the Panama Canal Zone.
c. transferred rights to the Panama Canal from France to the United States.
d. ended hostilities with Mexico in 1914.
e. gave the United States control of the Philippines.

b

The Roosevelt Corollary
a. reflected America's increasing trust in the motives of Europe.
b. indicated a new American spirit of cooperation with Latin America.
c. resulted from America's fear that Latin American debts to Europe invited intervention.
d. had relatively little influence on American foreign policy.
e. stated "speak softly and carry a big stick"

c

The Roosevelt Corollary was an extension of the
a. Lodge Corollary
b. Monroe Doctrine.
c. Open Door policy.
d. Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty.
e. Kansas-Nebraska Act

b

In the 1905 Taft-Katsura Agreement,
a. the US and Japan agreed not to attack each other for at least 50 years.
b. the US exchanged recognition of Japanese control of Korea for a Japanese pledge not to invade the Philippines.
c. Japan agreed to limit emigration to the US.
d. the US and Japan agreed to a policy of mutual free trade.
e. the US and Japan agreed to uphold the Open Door and support Chinese independence.

b

Taft's policy of "dollar diplomacy"
a. promoted American financial and business interests abroad.
b. was primarily aimed at helping underdeveloped countries.
c. resulted in less American influence in Latin America.
d. had little influence on American national security interests.
e. helped establish the prestige of the United States in Asia.

a

In his approach to foreign affairs, Wilson could be described as
a. a militarist.
b. a moralist.
c. being primarily concerned with economic matters.
d. a global strategist.
e. a pacifist.

b

In conducting foreign policy, Woodrow Wilson did each of the following EXCEPT
a. carry on major negotiations without informing the secretary of state.
b. compose important diplomatic notes on his own typewriter.
c. assign only experienced foreign service experts to major diplomatic posts.
d. bypass the state dept. and conduct diplomacy through personal emissaries.
e. base his foreign policy on idealism rather than reality.

c

With respect to Mexico, Wilson
a. intervened militarily.
b. showed little interest in the area.
c. refused to intervene in the region.
d. had congress declare war in 1913.
e. adopted a policy of shared wealth.

a

At the beginning of WWI, Americans
a. showed little interest in the conflict.
b. sided strongly with the British.
c. were eager to enter the conflict.
d. sided strongly with the Germans.
e. generally accepted neutrality.

e

American Progressives viewed WWI
a. as a potential threat to their reforms.
b. as an opportunity to help Germany.
c. with little concern.
d. as an opportunity to extend the scope of their movement.
e. as a great way to "jump start" the US economy.

a

President Wilson's initial reaction to the outbreak of war in Europe in 1914 was to
a. declare war on Germany.
b. come to the military assistance of Russia.
c. praise the assassination of the archduke of Austria.
d. declare United States neutrality.
e. begin construction of U-boats.

d

At the beginning of WWI, Great Britain
a. respected American neutrality.
b. made few attempts to influence American policy.
c. sought the military aid of the United States.
d. sought to restrict American trade with Germany.
e. briefly considered surrender.

d

The Zimmermann Telegram
a. announced Germany's European war aims.
b. pledged Germany's intention to end the war peacefully.
c. proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico.
d. had little effect on America's move toward war.
e. hinted at an alliance between Germany and Canada.

c

The American Expeditionary Force
a. was primarily made up of draftees.
b. consisted, for the most part, of the existing U.S. Army.
c. was primarily a volunteer army.
d. was initially well-prepared and trained for war.
e. was a spearhead of elite commandos.

a

During WWI, approximately ____ American soldiers died in Europe.
a. 25,000
b. 62,000
c. 112,000
d. 300,000
e. 500,000

c

The American contribution in WWI
a. was mostly monetary.
b. was small but vital to Allied success.
c. played a relatively minor role in ending the war.
d. was much greater than that of the Allies.
e. came too late to offer any real assistance.

b

Woodrow Wilson
a. was disturbed by American vigilantism and superpatriotism.
b. actually encouraged repressive activities during World War I.
c. paid little attention to American propaganda efforts.
d. fought congressional actions against espionage.
e. personally shut down several newspapers because of their reluctance regarding self-censorship.

b

To finance the war effort, the US govt relied primarily on
a. higher income tax rates.
b. printing and spending large sums of paper money.
c. sale of "Liberty Bonds."
d. new discoveries of gold in Alaska.
e. loans from foreign governments.

c

When communist Bolsheviks gained control of the Russian govt in 1917, President Wilson did each of the following EXCEPT
a. Send American troops into the new Soviet Union.
b. join in an economic blockade of Russia.
c. try to block weapons shipments to contending revolutionary factions in Russia.
d. keep Russia out of the postwar peace negotiations.
e. refuse to recognize the new Soviet government.

c

The Fuel Administration did each of the following EXCEPT
a. ration coal and oil.
b. impose gasless days when motorists could not drive.
c. introduce daylight savings time
d. shut down nonessential factories one day each week to conserve coal.
e. encourage research to find alternatives to fossil fuels.

e

A major effect of the war labor shortage was
a. a dramatic rise in wages for all workers.
b. a great migration of southern African Americans to northern cities.
c. a worsening in government-labor relations.
d. a decrease in the number of working women.
e. the construction of more factories.

b

As a result of their participation in the war effort, African Americans
a. faced even worse discrimination in America.
b. became more accepting of the conditions they faced.
c. found greater acceptance of their place in American society.
d. were more and more inclined to fight discrimination.
e. generally were allowed to remain in Europe.

d

One of Wilson's major goals at Paris was
a. to punish Germany for starting the war.
b. to recompense the British and French for their great losses.
c. to found a League of Nations to enforce peace.
d. to bring the Russians to the peace table.
e. to see the Eiffel Tower.

c

Which of the following was NOT characteristic of progressivism?
a. It sought radical changes in American life.
b. It meant to humanize and regulate big business.
c. Its members were fundamentally optimistic about human nature.
d. Its members were willing to intervene in other people's lives.
e. It emphasized the role of the environment in human development.

a

The 18th Amendment to the Constitution provided for
a. women's suffrage.
b. prohibition.
c. a federal income tax.
d. direct election of senators.
e. extending the franchise to eighteen-year-olds.

b

The women's suffrage movement suffered from each of the following problems EXCEPT
a. disunity.
b. male opposition.
c. resistance from the Catholic Church.
d. opposition from the prohibition movement.
e. indecision on whether to pursue remedies at the state or national level.

d

The 19th Amendment to the Constitution provided for
a. women's suffrage.
b. prohibition.
c. a federal income tax.
d. direct election of senators.
e. extending the franchise to eighteen-year-olds.

a

The most effective proponent of "sociological jurisprudence" was
a. William Howard Taft
b. Louis Brandeis
c. Clarence Darrow
d. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
e. Eugene V. Debs

b

The most influential educator of the Progressive Era was
a.Thomas Johnson.
b. Eugene V. Debs.
c. Robert M. La Follette.
d. John Dewey.
e. William James.

d

The most prominent American socialist during the Progressive Era
was
a. "Big Bill" Haywood.
b. Gifford Pinchot.
c. Eugene V. Debs.
d. Upton Sinclair.
e. Daniel DeLeon.

c

To Progressives, the commissions they championed offered a way to
a. increase their political power.
b. reduce the power of reformers.
c. end the corrupt alliance between business and politics.
d. provide employment for their supporters.
e. get regular citizens into political offices.

c

Which of the following states had the most progressive reform program in the early 1900's?
a. New York
b. Delaware
c. Mississippi
d. Washington
e. Wisconsin

e

Theodore Roosevelt angered southerners by inviting ______ to the White House.
a. Booker T. Washington
b. W. E. B. DuBois
c. George Washington Carver
d. Madam C. J. Walker
e. Scott Joplin

a

The Supreme Court's decision in the Northern Securities case
a. paved the way for several other antitrust actions.
b. had little effect on the problem of trusts overall.
c. was opposed by Roosevelt.
d. affected only the smaller American trusts.
e. was unanimous.

a

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