AP European History Chapter 29

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Volk

A German term used by Hitler to describe the German people

Lebensraum

Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people

Stresa Front

made up by Italy, France, and Britain to keep the status quo in Europe when Hitler decided to rearm Germany

Lytton Report

this was a report generated by a League of Nations to try to determine the causes of the Manchurian Incident which led to the Empire of Japan's seizure of Manchuria; it condemned Japan for resorting to force, but the powers were unwilling to impose sanctions; Japan then withdrew from the league and kept Manchuria

Falangists

these were Fascists in Spain; they lost the 1936 elections; as a result, Francisco Franco led an army against the republic; this coup d'etat was successful and Franco became the dictator of Spain

General Francisco Franco

In 1936 the Spanish Civil War began. This man led the Fascists, fighting republican forces. In 1939, the Fascist forces won (with help from Italy and Germany). He ruled a military dictatorship until his death in 1975.

Spanish popular front

in Spain's Second Republic was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organizations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that year's election.

Anti Comintern Pact

Germany and Japan signed this, promising a common front against communisim

Rome Berlin Axis Pact

This was a treaty signed between Fascist brothers Adolph Hitler and Benito Mussolini. They assured an alliance with each other while agreeing to support each other against Allied powers.

Kurt von Schuschnigg

Austrian Chancellor who refused to be intimidated by Hitler and decided to announce a plebiscite on March 13th in which Austrian people themselves could decide whether to unite with Germany

Anschluss

The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938.

Sudentenland

a region of Czechoslovakia where many Germans lived; demanded by Hitler in 1938 to have control of this land; when Czechs refused, Hitler threatened war

Berchtesgaden

pact in which Chamberlain accepted the seperation of the Sudetenland from the Czechs.

Munich Agreement

Chamberlain flew to Munich to attend summit w/France, Italy & Germany; discussed future of Czechoslovakia; led to transfer of all Sudenten territories to Germany in return of Hitler promising respect sovereignty of remainder of Czechoslovakia

Nazi Soviet Pact

Nonaggression treaty between Russia and Germany allowing Germany to fight a one front war until Germany violated treaty by invading Russia

Blitzkrieg

"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939

Sitzkrieg

"Phony War" with Hitler in 1939-1940 where Hitler prepared for his attack

Dunkirk

city in the northwest corner of France where the allied troops were trapped by the advancing Germany Army. 800 British ships, ranging from warships to fishing boats, crossed the channel from England to rescue over 300,000 British and French troops.

Vichy France

Southern Pro-Nazi French; govern themselves as loyal to nazis; traitors to the Free French in N. France

Battle of Britain

an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.

Winston Churchill

A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West. A bit of a rabid dog.

Luftwaffe

the German air force before and during World War II

Royal Air Force (RAF)

The air force of Britain. Successfully staved off an invasion by the German Luftwaffe.

Spitfire

fast, maneuverable British fighter plane that helped England win the Battle of Britain

Hawker Hurricane

a British single-seat fighter aircraft that was designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. Some production of the Hurricane was carried out in Canada by the Canada Car and Foundry Co Ltd. Although largely overshadowed by the Supermarine Spitfire, the aircraft became renowned during the Battle of Britain.

Operation Barbarossa

Codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II -- led to USSR joining the Allies

General Erwin Rommel

one of the most distinguished German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname "The Desert Fox" for the skillful military campaigns he waged on behalf of the German Army in North Africa. He was later in command of the German forces opposing the Allied cross-channel invasion at Normandy.

Untermenschen

"subhuman creatures," those Hitler did not believe he needed to treat humanely. His term of endearment for JEws.

Judenrein

German word meaning "cleansed of Jews". It was Hitler's ultimate goal behind the Holocaust.

Concentration Camps

prison camps used under the rule of Hitler in Nazi Germany. Conditions were inhuman, and prisoners, mostly Jewish people, were generally starved or worked to death, or killed immediately.

Holocaust

A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of primarily Jews, but also non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.

General Hideki Tojo

led a war faction that took power in Japan in 1941. he decided to attack pearl harbor rather than yield to U.S. control. The U.S. had frozen Japanese assets and cut off their oil supplies, which hindered Japan's plans for expansion.

Pearl Harbor

A naval base in Hawaii that was bombed by japan on December 7, 1941, which forced America to enter the war

El Alamein

Town in Egypt, site of the victory by Britain's Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery over German forces led by General Erwin Rommel (the 'Desert Fox') in 1942-1943. (p. 793)

Coral Sea

Crucial naval battle which stopped the Japanese march across the Pacific, first time all fighting was done by carrier based aircraft

Midway

World War II Pacific battle; decisive U.S. victory over powerful Japanese carrier force.

Guadalcanal

This island was the site of the US's first invasion of Japanese-held territory. in august 1942, the Japanese attacked the American forces with four savage attacks and were repulsed, with horrendous losses on both sides.

Bernard Montgomery

A British army general who defeated the Germans at El Alamein in Egypt, and began pursuing them westward.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

leader of the American forces in Europe during WWII leader of troops in Africa and commander in D Day invasion

Pietro Badoglio

Italian fascist who rules after Mussolini and with whom the US negotiates a surrender (so much for unconditional surrender--Stalin embittered)

Battle of Stalingrad

Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union. Because the Russians held the line, the Germans were pushed back, and never recovered. Had they taken Stalingrad, they could have gone to Moscow, and would never have been defeated. Arguably one of the most important battles of WWII.

Strategic bombing

a military strategy used in a WWII where the Allies bombed the Japanese for days on end with the goal of weakening their defenses and bringing them to a surrender (which they never do)

D-Day

The start date of Operation Overlord. Allied forces under Dwight D. Eisenhower landed on the beaches of France in history's greatest naval invasion. First amphibious invasion ever.

Normandy

A region in northwestern France on the English channel. The D-Day invasion began on the 5 beaches of this region.

The Battle of the Bulge

AKA Battle of the Ardennes started on December 16, 1944. planned by the Germans was to split the British and American Allied line in half, capturing Antwerp and then proceeding to encircle and destroy four Allied armies, forcing the Western Allies to negotiate a peace treaty in the Axis's favor. The "bulge" refers to the salient the Germans initially put into the Allies' line of advance. the most bloody of the comparatively few European battles American forces experienced in WWII, the 19,000 American dead

Island Hopping

stragety of Allies in World War 2 of capturing some Japanese-held islands and going around others

Kamikazes

Suicide attacks by bomb-laden Japanese planes

Iwo Jima

a bloody and prolonged operation on the island of Iwo Jima in which American marines landed and defeated Japanese defenders (February and March 1945)

Okinawa

The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.

Manhattan Project

Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States. The actual Manhattan Project did not take place in NY.

Hiroshima

City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II. (p. 797)

Nagasaki

Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).

Emperor Hirohito

emperor of Japan during WWII. his people viewed him as a god

Harry S. Truman

The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. He, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, he was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.

USS Missouri

On September 2, 1945, the Japanese emperor formally surrendered on this ship in Tokyo Bay.

Vichy Government

Government of the unoccupied part of France after the countries defeat by Germany

General Charles de Gaulle

French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)

Fourth Republic

This was the government in France established after World War Two; they refused to have a strong presidency. They granted the right to vote to women.

The Atlantic Charter

This was created by Winston Churchill and President Franklin D. Roosevelt in a secret conference. It outlined the hopes of the democracies and their intentions for improvements after World War II; Renunciation of territorial aggression, No territorial changes without the consent of the peoples concerned, Restoration of sovereign rights and self-government, Access to raw material for all nations, World economic cooperation, Freedom from fear and want, Freedom of the seas, Disarmament of aggressors.

Tehran Agreement

Held between Britain, America, and the USSR: *Chose Europe's west coast as point of attack instead of the Mediterranean Sea -- led to Soviet Union occupying Eastern Europe

Yalta Conference

FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War

United Nations

organization founded after World War II to promote international peace and cooperation.

Potsdam Conference

The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.

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