All Pathophysiology Homework and Exam Questions

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"A gluten-free diet as required" for the client with celiac disease means avoiding:

certain grains

A virus

is an intracellular parasite requiring a living host cell for reproduction. Each viral particle contains either DNA or RNA. They cause disease by destroying human cells during replication or by altering human cell DNA.

Adverse effects of antibacterial agents are

allergic reactions, secondary infections, and increasing numbers of drug-resistant microbes.

All of the following apply to CVA EXCEPT:

maximum necrosis and infarction develop within several hours of onset

All of the following apply to tetanus infection EXCEPT:

signs of infection include fever, vomiting, stiff neck, and paralysis

An accurate assessment of the extent of permanent spinal cord damage can usually be completed:

approximately 10 days to 2 weeks following injury if no complications arise

An alkaline environment is required in the duodenum to:

activate intestinal and pancreatic enzymes

An epidural hematoma is located between the:

dura mater and the skull

Antibacterial drugs are classified by

their activity (bactericidal or bacteriostatic, narrow or broad spectrum) and mechanism (e.g., interference with protein or cell wall synthesis).

Antiviral drugs limit viral replication, thus

reducing the active stage, but do not kill the virus or cure the infection.

Aspiration pneumonia is usually caused by aspiration of:

liquids such as oils or milk

Bacteria

are single-cell organisms enclosed within a cell wall and sometimes an outer capsule. They reproduce by binary fission. They may secrete exotoxins, endotoxins, or enzymes that damage the human host cells.

Choose the basic cause of osteodystrophy associated with chronic renal failure.

failure of the kidney to activate vitamin D

Choose the significant change in arterial blood gases expected with prolonged severe vomiting:

decreased bicarbonate ion, decreased PCO2, serum pH 7.35

Circulatory shock causes:

decreased GFR and increased renin secretion

Common causes of urolithiasis include all of the following EXCEPT:

hyperlipidemia

Communicating hydrocephalus causes increased intracranial pressure because of:

failure of the subarachnoid to absorb CSF

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is caused by:

infection in the brain by a prion

Cystitis is more common in females due to:

the urethra is short, wide, and adjacent to areas with resident flora

Deficiencies of vitamins A, D, and K occur in patients with cirrhosis primarily because of decreased?

production of bile for absorption

Dehydration limits compensation available for an acid-base imbalance resulting from prolonged vomiting and diarrhea because:

hypovolemia limits renal function

Destruction of alveolar walls and septae is a typical change in:

emphysema

Failure of the spinous processes to fuse but without herniation of the meninges is called:

spina bifida occulta

Following a spinal injury at C5, what is the expected effect during the period of spinal shock?

possible periods of apnea

Following gastric resection, the onset of nausea, cramps, and dizziness immediately after meals indicates:

a large volume of chyme has entered the intestines, causing distention

From the following, choose the substance likely to appear in the urine when the glomerulus is inflamed.

albumin

Growth and development of a child with cystic fibrosis may be delayed because of:

mucus plugs obstructing the flow of pancreatic enzymes

Helminths are

parasitic worms that can infect the gut, liver, bloodstream, or lungs.

Hirschsprung's disease refers to:

congenital lack of PNS innervations in a segment of the colon

Histoplasmosis is caused by a:

fungus

How does a volvulus cause localized gangrene in the intestine?

The mesenteric arteries are compressed in the twisted section of intestine.

How does chemical peritonitis and shock frequently result from acute pancreatitis?

Inflammation and increased vascular permeability of the peritoneum affect fluid balance.

How does localized peritonitis develop from acute appendicitis before rupture?

Intestinal bacteria escape through the necrotic appendiceal wall.

How is respiratory failure defined?

PaO2 less than 50 mm Hg or PaCO2 greater than 50 mm Hg

How is the presence of spina bifida diagnosed?

prenatally by ultrasound or detection of AFP in maternal blood or amniotic fluid

How may a fistula form with Crohn's disease?

recurrent inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis forming a connection between intestinal loops

Identify a major reason making it difficult to prevent the spread of hepatitis B.

Infection is often asymptomatic.

In a case of bacterial meningitis, where does swelling and purulent exudate form?

involving the pia, arachnoid, and surface of the entire brain

In acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, the glomerular inflammation results from:

type III hypersensitivity reaction

In cases of noncommunicating hydrocephalus, why does excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulate?

An obstruction is present in the aqueduct of Sylvius or other channel.

In the liver, amino acids are used to produce complex molecules by means of:

anabolic processes

In which condition is a deficit of protein and vitamins most likely to occur?

regional ileitis

In which disorders do biochemical abnormalities involving the neurotransmitters in the brain occur?

1. bipolar disorder2. schizophrenia3. Huntington's disease 1-2-3

In which type of neuron is progressive degeneration occurring with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?

upper and lower motor neurons

Infection may be eradicated without drug treatment when

the microbial colony becomes limited in growth, perhaps because of insufficient nutrients, or when host defenses destroy the invader.

Infections

are caused by pathogenic microorganisms. They may be classified and identified by their characteristics, such as size, shape, component parts, and requirements for growth and reproduction.

Influenza

is a respiratory infection caused by a virus that frequently mutates, preventing long-term immunity by vaccination or experiencing the infection.

Laryngotracheobronchitis is typically manifested by:

hoarse voice and barking cough

Malnutrition may develop in children with celiac disease because of:

damage to the intestinal villi

Mediastinal flutter associated with chest injury is likely to:

decrease venous return to the heart

Normally, proteins or amino acids are required to produce all of the following EXCEPT:

cellular energy

Only a few fungi are pathogenic;

Candida is an example of an opportunistic member of resident flora in the human body.

Oral candidiasis is considered to:

be an opportunistic fungal infection of the mouth

Orthopnea is:

difficulty breathing in a recumbent position

Pancreatic cancer may be diagnosed early if obstruction of bile or pancreatic secretions develops when the tumor is located:

at the head of the pancreas

Persistent thick mucus in the bronchioles of a child with cystic fibrosis may cause:

1, 2, 3, 4-1. air trapping,2. atelectasis3. repeated infections4. irreversible damage to lung tissue

Pleurisy associated with lobar pneumonia is manifested by:

cyclic chest pain and friction rub

Predisposing factors to cholelithiasis include excessive:

bilirubin or cholesterol concentration in the bile

Prions

are protein-like molecules that cause deformation of proteins within the central nervous system. Their mode of action is not well understood. Prions are transmitted by ingestion of undercooked meat contaminated with prions or by organ donation from an infected donor.

Prolonged or severe stress predisposes to peptic ulcer disease because:

of reduced blood flow to the gastric wall and mucous glands

Prolonged vomiting cause a state of acidosis due to:

catabolism of proteins and lipids

Pyelonephritis may be distinguished from cystitis by the presence in pyelonephritis of:

urinary casts and flank pain

Reduced urine output resulting from inflammation and necrosis of the tubules is called:

oliguria

Resident or normal flora refers to

the large variety of nonpathogenic microbes normally present in diverse sites in the body, such as skin, mouth, nose and pharynx, intestines, and vagina.

Rust-colored sputum in a patient with pneumonia usually indicates:

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the infecting agent

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a/an:

Coronavirus

Signs and symptoms of acute sinusitis usually include:

copious frothy sputum and dyspnea

Signs of infection are not apparent until sufficient numbers of microorganisms are established and reproducing in the body. Local signs of infection include

inflammation and necrosis of tissue. Systemic signs include fever, headache, fatigue, anorexia, and malaise.

The basic pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis is considered to be:

an abnormality of the exocrine glands

The defective gene for Huntington's disease can be detected in carriers.

TRUE

The degree of virulence of a specific pathogen determines

the severity of the resulting infection.

The infection cycle may be broken by

reducing the reservoir of microbes, blocking transmission, or increasing host resistance.

The micturition reflex is initiated by:

increased pressure distending the bladder

The primary reason for seizures frequently occurring with head injuries is:

presence of blood irritates the neurons

The rabies virus is usually transmitted by:

bites from infected animals

The reabsorption of water and electrolytes by the kidneys is directly controlled by:

1, 2 1. atrial natriuretic hormone,2. antidiuretic hormone

The visceral peritoneum:

forms the outer covering of the stomach and intestines

Through what area does the cerebrospinal fluid circulate around the brain and spinal cord?

in the subarachnoid space

To which site does colon cancer usually first metastasize?

liver

Transmission of pathogens may occur by

direct or indirect contact, including oral or respiratory droplet, sexual contact, fomite, or vector.

Typical signs of a TIA include:

transient muscle weakness in a hand or leg

Under what circumstances do cells in the kidneys secrete renin?

Blood flow in the afferent arteriole decreases.

Universal precautions, as outlined by the CDC, assume that

blood and body fluids from any person may be a source of infection; therefore, appropriate preventative measures must be taken with all individuals.

Uremic signs of renal failure include all of the following EXCEPT:

congestive heart failure

Urinary casts are present with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis because of:

inflamed tubules mold RBCs and protein into a typical mass

What are common signs of cor pulmonale?

hepatomegaly and edema in the legs

What are early signs and symptoms of infectious rhinitis?

serous nasal discharge, congestion, and sneezing

What are the characteristic changes in the brain with Alzheimer's disease?

cortical atrophy with plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, impairing conduction

What are the signs of autonomic dysreflexia in a person with cervical spinal injury?

sudden marked increase in blood pressure with bradycardia

What are the typical changes occurring with Crohn's disease?

inflamed areas of the wall of the ileum alternating with thick fibrotic or normal areas

What causes a herniated intervertebral disc?

a protrusion of the nucleus pulposus through the annulus fibrosis

What causes elevated serum levels of AST and ALT during the preicteric stage of hepatitis?

necrosis of liver cells

What causes hypovolemic shock to develop with intestinal obstruction?

continued vomiting and fluid shift into the intestine

What causes massive inflammation and necrosis in acute pancreatitis?

activation and spread of proteolytic enzymes

What causes polyuria during the stage of renal insufficiency?

loss of tubule function

What causes the characteristic rigid abdomen found in the patient with peritonitis?

inflamed peritoneum resulting in reflex abdominal muscle spasm

What causes the dark urine associated with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis?

increased glomerular permeability resulting in gross hematuria

What characteristic is common to all individuals with cerebral palsy?

a form of motor disability

What does a vegetative state refer to?

loss of awareness and intellectual function but continued brainstem function

What does congenital pyloric stenosis involve?

hypertrophy and hyperplasia of smooth muscle n the pylorus

What does hydronephrosis lead to?

ischemia and fibrosis in the compressed area

What does the term gluconeogenesis refer to?

formation of glucose from protein and fat

What does the term hemoptysis refer to?

bright red streaks of blood in frothy sputum

What does the term periodontitis refer to?

bacterial damage to the ligaments and bone surrounding teeth

What is a common cause of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella?

raw or undercooked poultry or eggs

What is a major function of the limbic system?

determines emotional responses

What is caused by frequent inhalation of irritating particles such as silica?

fibrosis and loss of compliance

What is the best definition of aphasia?

the inability to comprehend or express language appropriately

What is the cause of chronic bronchitis?

chronic irritation, inflammation, and recurrent infection of the larger airways

What is the cause of most cases of pyelonephritis?

an ascending infection by E. coli

What is the definition of achalasia?

lack of a nerve plexus to relax the lower esophageal sphincter

What is the effect of an enlarging brain abscess on cardiovascular activity?

systemic vasoconstriction and slower heart rate

What is the likely effect of long-term exposure to a hepatotoxin?

gradual irreversible damage to the liver and cirrhosis

What is the pathophysiologic change in Parkinson's disease?

degeneration of the basal nuclei with a deficit of dopamine

What is the rationale for vomiting with increased intracranial pressure?

pressure on the emetic center in the medulla

What is the typical initial effect of a herniated intervertebral disc at the L4 to L5 level?

lower back pain radiating down the leg

What is the usual result of damage to the right occipital lobe?

loss of left visual field

What pain is typical of diverticulitis?

lower left quadrant

What would be the likely outcome from chemical peritonitis related to a perforated gall bladder?

leakage of intestinal bacteria into blood and the peritoneal cavity

When a portion of the proximal stomach and the paraesophageal junction move above the diaphragm, this is called a:

sliding hernia

Whenever PO2 levels decrease below normal, then PCO2 levels:

may or may not change

Which disease is manifested by dysuria and pyuria?

cystitis

Which factors appear to have a role in the etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases?

genetic and immunologic factors

Which factors contribute to ascites in patients with cirrhosis?

increased aldosterone and deficit of albumin

Which manifestation(s) of atelectasis is/are associated with airway obstruction?

decreased breath sounds on the affected side

Which of the following applies to anthrax infection?

When inhaled it causes flulike symptoms followed by acute respiratory distress.

Which of the following applies to hepatitis A infection?

It is transmitted by the fecal-oral route.

Which of the following applies to Parkinson's disease?

Onset occurs in men and women over 60 years of age.

Which of the following applies to the corticospinal tract?

It is a pyramidal tract for efferent impulses.

Which of the following are common early signs of multiple sclerosis?

tremors, weakness in the legs, visual problems

Which of the following are related to post-hepatic jaundice?

pruritic skin and light-colored stools

Which of the following are significant signs of bronchiectasis?

chronic cough producing large quantities of purulent sputum

Which of the following breaks protein down into peptides?

trypsin

Which of the following causes acute renal failure?

bilateral acute glomerulonephritis

Which of the following causes papilledema?

increased pressure of CSF at the optic disc

Which of the following cells in the gastric mucosa produce intrinsic factor and hydrochloric acid?

parietal cells

Which of the following classes of drugs may provide temporary improvement in cases of myasthenia gravis?

anticholinesterase agents

Which of the following conditions is marked by focal signs?

brain abscess

Which of the following describes the normal flow of urine?

collecting duct to the renal pelvis to the ureter to the bladder

Which of the following describes the supply of bile following a cholecystectomy?

Small amounts of bile are continuously secreted and flow into the duodenum.

Which of the following dietary supplements has reduced the incidence of spina bifida in recent years?

folic acid

Which of the following distinguishes influenza from infectious rhinitis?

Influenza has a sudden onset with fever, marked muscle aching, and severe malaise.

Which of the following does NOT apply to carbon dioxide?

d. It is replaced on hemoglobin by oxygen in the lungs.

Which of the following does NOT usually result from nephrosclerosis?

acute renal failure

Which of the following drugs is usually prescribed for prophylaxis in persons in close contact with a patient with active tuberculosis?

Isoniazid

Which of the following is a major cause of primary hepatocellular cancer?

long-term exposure to certain chemicals

Which of the following is a major factor contributing to the current increase in cases of tuberculosis?

the increase in immunodeficient individuals

Which of the following is a predisposing factor to bladder cancer?

exposure to chemicals and cigarette smoke

Which of the following is a significant early sign of bronchogenic carcinoma in a smoker?

hemoptysis and weight loss

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