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On a scale where the sun is about the size of a grapefruit and earth is about 15 meters away, how far away are the nearest stars besides the sun?

about the distance across the united states

how are galaxies important for our existence?

galaxies recycle material from one generation of stars to the next, and without this recycling we could not exist

Which of the following best describes the galaxy?

a spiral galaxy with a disk about 100,000 light years in diameter and containing between 100 billion and 1 trillion stars

Light takes approximately one second to travel from the earth to the moon. this means that the moon is approximately

300,000 kilometeres from the earth

Suppose we look at a photograph of many galaxies. Assuming that all galaxies formed at the same time after the big bang, which galaxy appears to us as the youngest?

the galaxy that is furthest from us

Suppose we imagine the sun to be about the size of a grapefruit. Which of the following describes the size and distance of the earth on the same scale?

earth is the size of a point about 15 meters away from the sun

which is longer, a solar year or a lunar year?

a solar year, because a lunar year is 12 lunar months that are 29-30 days long each, for a total of 354-355 days

a scientific model

uses math and logic to describe and predict the behavior of a real-world system

on the scale of the cosmic calendar in which history of the universe is compressed to 1 year, how long has the human civilization existed?

a few seconds

In the greek geocentric model, the retrograde motion of a planet occurs when

the earth is about to pass the planet in its orbit around the sun

How long does it take our solar system to complete one orbit around the milky way galaxy

230 million years

according to Keplers third law

jupiter orbits the sun at a faster speed than saturn

what do we mean when we say that the universe is expanding

average distance between galaxies is increasing with time

What is the sun mainly made of

hydrogen and helium

an astronomical unit (AU) is

the average distance between earth and the sun

based on observations of the universal expansion, the age of the universe is about

14 billion years

the term observable universe refers to

the portion of the universe that can be seen by the naked eye

how many arc seconds are in one degree

3,600

which of the following statements about circumpolar stars is true at all latitudes

they always remain above your horizon

what makes the north star, polaris, special?

it appears very near the north celestial pole

which of the following statements is true?

Both the northern and southern hemispheres recieve the same amount of sunlight on the equinoxes

the northern hemisphere recieves the most direct sunlight on the summer solstice

which of the following statements about constellations is false

most constellations will be unrecognizeable hundreds of years from now

Which of the following is not a phase of the moon

half moon

if the moon is setting at 6 am the phase of the moon must be

full

if the moon rises around 3 am its phase must be

wanning crescent

in addition to the conditions required for any solar eclipse, what must also be true in order for you to observe a total eclipse

the moons umbra must touch the area where you are located

when are eclipse seasons

when the nodes of the moons orbit are nearly aligned with the sun

ancient people who knew the aros cycle could

predict when an eclipse would happen, but not necessarily what type and where it would be visible

what happens during the apparent retrograde motion of a planet

the planet appears to move eastward with respect to the stars over a period of many nights

why were ancient peoples unable to detect stellar parallax

they did not have the ability to measure very small angles

at approxiamtely what time would a first quarter moon rise

noon

why did ptolemy have the planets orbiting earth on circles upon circles in his model of the universe

to explain the fact that planets sometimes appear to move westward rather than eastward relative to the stars in our sky

he discoverd that orbits of planets are ellipses

kepler

he discovered that jupiter has moons

galileo

the point along a planets orbit where it is closest to the sun is called the orbits

aphelion

what is acceleration of gravity of earh

9.8 m/s^2 downward

if your mass is 60 kg on earth what would your mass be on the moon

60 kg

what quantites does angular momentum depend upon

mass, velocity, and radius

the amount of gravitational potential energy released as an object falls depends on

the distance it falls

considering einstaeins famous equation, e= mc^2 which of the following statements is true

a small amount of mass can be turned into a large amount of energy

which of the following statements correctly describes the law of conservation of energy ?

the total quantity of energy in the universe changes

the mass of jupiter can be calculated by

measuring the orbital period and distance of one of jupiters moons

gasoline is useful in cars because it has

chemical potential energy

which of the following correctly lists our cosmic address from small to large

earth, solar system, milky way galaxy, local group, local supercluster, universe

consider the statement "theres no gravity in space" the statement is

completely false

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