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Chapter 10 History European Explorers & The Americas

roads, aqueducts, buildings

Incas: Accomplishments

farming, calendar, hieroglyphics, number system, astronomy

Mayas: Accomplishments

farming, arts and crafts, medicine, astronomy, hieroglyphics

Aztecs: Accomplishments

Toussaint L'Ouverture

Haiti; Independence from France

Miguel Hidalgo

Mexico; Planned a revolution with Criollos; Mestizos and Native Americans fought against the Spanish; Captured and executed

Agustin de Iturbide

Mexico; Defeated the Spanish and declared Mexico independent

Simon Bolivar

South America/Venezuela; Freed future countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama

Jose de San Martin

South America/Argentina; Freed Chile from Spanish rule; Gave control of army to Bolivar

Copán and Tikal

Mayas: Ancient Cities

Tenochtitlan

Aztecs: Ancient Cities

Cuzco

Incas: Ancient Cities

Central America and Southern Mexico

Mayas: Location of Civilization

Valley of Mexico and Lake Texcoco

Aztecs: Location of Civilization

Cuzco Valley

Incas: Location of Civilization

50 degrees longitude

Line of Demarcation: Location

more powerful; advanced weapons; European diseases

Reasons for the Spanish victory in the Americas

Portugal- colonize east
Spain- colonize west

Treaty of Tordesillas Divisions

Peru and New Spain

Spain's two most important provinces

Oil prices to run factories rose; prices for Latin American goods dropped; many countries went into debt

Oil prices in the 1980s

invested, resulting in most powerful companies making huge profits

Foreign countries in Latin America

maize

both the plant and the kernel of corn

hieroglyphics

a system of writing using signs and symbols; used by the Maya and other cultures

aqueduct

a pipe or channel used to carry water from a distant source to dry areas

Treaty of Tordesillas

the 1494 treaty setting up the Line of Demarcation, giving Spain the right or settle and trade west of the line and Portugal the same rights east of the line

treaty

an agreement in writing made between two or more countries

Line of Demarcation

an imaginary line form the North Pole to the South Pole (at about 50 degrees longitude) set forth in the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas

conquistador

16th century conquerors working for the Spanish government who were in charge of gaining land and wealth in the Americas

mestizo

a person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry

hacienda

plantation owned by the Spanish settlers or the Catholic Church in Spanish America

revolution

a political movement in which the people overthrow a government and set up another

criollo

someone who was born in Latin America but has Spanish parents

caudillo

a military officer who ruled very strictly with unlimited power

invest

to spend money to earn more money

economy

the way that goods and services are produced and made available to people

Hernan Cortez

Aztecs thought Europeans were gods and brought them to Tenochtitlan; Moctezuma was killed and Aztec empire was destroyed

Francisco Pizarro

captured Atahualpa and asked for a ransom; killed Atahualpa and took over Incan Empire

Native American population went from 25 million to 3 million in 50 years; creation of New Spain and Peru (Kansas to the tip of South America)

Effects of European Exploration

give Spain 1/5 of any treasure they found

Conquistadors agreed to...

Portugal gave them their independence

Brazil's Independence

caudillos ruled because of land control; Latin America was very poor

after independence

Moctezuma

Aztec ruler

by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean

How did European explorers originally hope to reach Asia?

rivalry between Spain and Portugal; new land; fame; wealth

short-term effects of European exploration of Latin America

fighting and revolutions

How did Latin American countries win their independence?

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