What is the name for the area that deals with children?
What is the name for the doctor who practices in this field?
What is a "neonate"?
It is another name for a newborn up to 30 days of age (1 month).
When does the anterior fontanel (also called the teeth holes) close?
When does the posterior fontanel close?
When doe the first two lower central incisor teeth appear?
When does colic disappear?
What would you tell the parents of a child that has colic?
It is just a temporary condition and Rock the baby to comfort it.
How is SIDS best prevented?
Place the baby to sleep on its sides or on back with head flat. Do not position baby on abdomen until 6 months old.
What is "family centered care"?
The entire family is included in the care of the infant or child.
What are the factors that influence a child's growth and development?
Heredity and environment
What is "Development"?
It is a progressive increase in skills and capacity to function.
What is "Growth"?
It is defined as a change in body size and structure.
When does a baby develop a social smile?
At 3 months.
When does a child start to roll over?
At what age is it okay to give up the bottle?
After 1 year of age.
At what age does a child start to assert independence and have no concept of sharing?
What is the best way to take the pulse of a child under 2 years of age?
What is the normal pulse rate for an infant?
What is the normal pulse rate for a toddler?
What is the normal pulse rate for a preschooler?
What is the normal pulse rate for a school-age child?
What is the normal pulse rate for an adolescent?
What is the normal respiration rate for an infant?
What is the normal respiration rate for a toddler?
What is the normal respiration rate for a preschooler?
What is the normal respiration rate for a school-aged child?
What is the normal respiration rate for an adolescent?
What is normal blood pressure for an infant?
Systolic 74-100; Diastolic 50-70
What is normal blood pressure for a toddler?
Systolic 80-112; Diastolic 50-80
What is normal blood pressure for a preschooler?
Systolic 82-110; Diastolic 50-78
What is normal blood pressure for a school-age child?
Systolic 84-120; Diastolic 54-80
What is normal blood pressure for an adolescent?
Systolic 94-140; Diastolic 62-88
How many vocabulary words does a 1-year-old have?
How many vocabulary words does a 2-year-old have?
What is the most therapeutic activity for a child?
What is a common in a 6-year-old child?
Thinks he or she is most important person in the world.
What approach should be taken to manage behavior of a young school-age child?
Be consistent and firm about established rules
What causes behavior problems?
Inability of the child to establish healthy relationships with others.
What are some behaviors seen in autism?
Echolalia, avoidance of meaningful social interactions, no eye contact, rocking, spinning, twirling, fascination with shiny or spinning objects, poor or no speech.
What is the number one cause of harm/death in children ages 1-14?
Accidents cause more harm, injuries and deaths than diseases.
What does Lead poisoning (Plumbing) cause?
Causes irreversible damage to the CNS and mental retardation.
What are common diseases in childhood?
What is a serious complication caused by Corynebacterium diptheriae?
Congestive Heart Failure
What is the most important nursing intervention for a patient in the ER who has S/S of tetanus?
Maintain a patent airway
Before giving immunizations, what assessments should be made?
That the child is not allergic to the immunization and that child is healthy and well.
Which vaccination is given before traveling to another country?
What is a complication of Pertussis (whooping cough)?
At what age is Diptheria-Pertussis-Tetanus (DPT) given?
What is associated with Rubeola (measles)?
How many days before the rash from Rubeola disappears?
What may happen to a male adolescent who contracts Mumps?
Orchiditis (inflammation of the testicles) that may lead to sterility.
For the general public, what is a complication of Mumps?
What may happen if a pregnant woman is exposed to Rubella virus (German measles)?
Serious defects/deformities in the developing fetus along with mental retardation.
How many days does it take for the rash from Rubella to disappear?
If a patient has already had chicken pox (Varicella) in childhood, the next time he/she is exposed to the virus, (especially if they become immuno-compromised), what may be seen?
Shingles (Herpes zoster)
What is the DOC (drug of choice) for Varicella (chicken pox), Herpes zoster?
What common medication should be avoided when a child has a viral infection like chicken pox?
A.S.A. (aspirin) due to its association with Reye's Syndrome. Do not give aspirin products, only acetaminophen (Tylenol).
What is an early symptom of Reyes Syndrome?
Nausea and vomiting
What is another term for poliomyelitis?
What is the complication of polio?
Can cause temporary or permanent paralysis and respiratory arrest.
What is the complication of Strep throat if untreated?
Rheumatic heart fever
What is the DOC for Strep throat?
What is a complication of Rheumatic Fever?
What could happen if Rheumatic Fever or Strep throat is untreated?
When is tape placed over the anus of a child to detect pinworm infestation?
Early in the morning
How is the prognosis determines for a patient that is burned?
Prognosis is based on percentage of damage from burns on body surface
When rescuing a child from drowning, what should be done?
What are some signs of child abuse?
Fractures, old healed fractures, contusions (bruises) in areas that do not typically get bruised, "raccoon's eyes", Failure to thrive, withdrawn behavior, child is not comfortable with adults.
Who are the most common abusers of children?
What approach should be taken when working with a child where abuse is suspected?
Believe the child; observe for signs of physical abuse.
What is often seen in children who are institutionalized?
Signs of retardation (acquired retardation) from lack of stimulation.
What are some causes of clubfoot?
Hereditary factors; crowding in the womb; abnormal placement of the fetal foot
What is the treatment for Hydrocephalus?
Surgical implantation of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt to drain CSF (cerebro-spinal fluid) from the cranium into the peritoneal cavity where it is absorbed.
What is cranial stenosis?
Premature closing of the fontanels; the head is too small for the brain to grow and develop.
What is Celiac disease?
Malabsorption of nutrients; must have a gluten free diet.
Which foods are excluded in Celiac disease?
Food/s that are made from or contain: Wheat, Barley, Oats
What is Ricketts?
A bone disease caused by a deficiency in vitamin D and a faulty absorption of calcium and phosphorous.
Which vitamin is necessary to absorb iron?
What is Cystic Fibrosis?
An inherited genetic disorder characterized by malabsorption of nutrients especially fats due to a lack of pancreatic enzymes. The fat is undigested and passes out in foul smelling stools that float.
What is pyloric stenosis?
It is a disease in which the sphincter between the stomach and duodenum thickens making it difficult for food to pass through.
What is Otitis media and how is it treated?
A very commonly occurring infection of the middle ear that is easily treated with antibiotics.
What sign/symptom indicates a serious adverse effect of a tonsillectomy?
Frequent repeated swallowing may be indicative of hemorrhaging following a tonsillectomy.
What are different types of "restraints" used for infants and children?
Bubbletops on cribs; wrist/ankle restraints; arm boards, mummy board, papoose board
Can restraints be used for the convenience of the nurse?
What is important to assess prior to surgery?
Assess overall health, if child has a cough, fever, runny nose.
When a hospitalized child begins to wet his/her pants or bed, what does this mean?
They are regressing r/t the stress of illness and separation from parents.
When providing post-operative care for an infant or child recovering from cleft lip and palate repair, what is an important goal of the care?
Do not allow the child to cry after surgery or sutures will come undone.
What are problems associated with cleft lip and/or cleft palate?
Problems with feeding, speech and hearing.
What is "Dental malocclusion"?
Irregular tooth placement - can make chewing difficult.
What is the first sign of respiratory distress?
What is the most important nursing intervention when caring for a child with "croup"?
Assessment and frequent reassessment of respiratory status.
What is a negative outcome of "sickling" of red blood cells in Sickle cell anemia?
The sickle shaped cells do not carry sufficient O2 leading to hypoxia.
How is a "Crisis" managed in sickle cell anemia?
Pain medication and plenty of fluids; in serious situations, a blood transfusion is required.
What are the common s/s of leukemia?
Fatigue and frequent nosebleeds.
What are the s/s of Mononucleosis?
Fever, malaise, chills, and sometimes a H/A
What is the treatment for acne vulgaris?
Retinoid therapy (accutane/Retin-A)
When is appendicitis common?
What causes "athlete's foot" (Tinea Pedis)?
What is another name for "hunchback"?
What is "Mittleschmerz"?
Dysmenorrhea or middle pain during ovulation and in between periods.
What causes constipation and what is the treatment approach?
Stress, improper diet, not enough exercise. Include fiber, fluids and exercise, stress.
What causes Diabetes Mellitus in children?
It is often related to a viral infection that kills the beta cells of the pancreas that produce insulin.
If the nurse is unsure whether the patient is in hypo- or hyperglycemia, what should be given?
Sugar, juice, candy.
Which type of diabetes does NOT get an oral hyperglycemia agent?
Diabetes Mellitus Type I, Juvenile onset; Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)
What does Micropathic diabetes affect?
What does Macropathic diabetes affect?
Increases cholesterol and triglyceride levels leading to CVD & problems of heart, kidney & retina
What is the classification of aminophylline?
What is the classification of digoxin (Lanoxin)?