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What were the key ideological differences between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War?

Differences between the United States and the Soviet Union related to economic and political philosophy. The United States focused on individual liberty as opposed to state authority and a capitalist economy that emphasized free economic markets. The Soviet Union had an authoritarian government that emphasized the equal distribution of economic goods and services. Soviet leaders believed a strong state that limited individual freedom was needed as the nation made the transition to an ideal communist state in which common interests would guide human interaction instead of the individual desire for wealth.

What factors contributed to the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991?

The multiethnic structure of the Soviet Union, with dozens of ethnic groups and languages, gave rise to various nationalist movements as Mikhail Gorbachev loosened the Communist Party's control. Conservative elements in the traditional Soviet government resisted Gorbachev's reforms and attempted a coup in 1991. When the coup failed, the Soviet republics voted for independence and the Soviet Union ceased to exist.

What events and developments brought colonialism to an end?

Decolonization came as a result of increasing pressure from indigenous colonized populations for freedom and opportunity. At the same time, many European governments had lost political support for maintaining colonies at home and in the international community. The cost of supporting the colonial ventures was also proving to be unsustainable.

Describe factors that led to the growth of nationalist movements in Africa.

-Immense growth in population led to comparatively -young population open to new ideas.
-Urban growth led to increased industrial/educational opportunities.
-The growth of a significant middle class gave rise to a set of native elites familiar with Western models of governance.
-Traditional African concepts of community prompted demands for a more equitable distribution of wealth.

How were the rebuilding efforts in Europe organized?

Physical rebuilding was led by the United States through the Marshal Plan and other assistance designed to support the construction of new infrastructure, development of markets, and the restoration of confidence. Political rebuilding involved the creation of new liberal democratic institutions in Germany and Italy.

For what purpose was the European Union formed in 1952?

The Union was formed originally to create a free trade zone among member states.

Compare and contrast U.S. and Soviet reconstruction plans for postwar Europe.

The U.S.-funded Marshal Plan aimed at developing self-sustaining markets in Western Europe and furnishing substantial financial aid. COMECON was a similar effort made by the Soviets, but no financial assistance was provided. The Soviet rebuilding effort was much less successful than the U.S. initiative, and Western European nations grew considerably wealthier than the Soviet-dominated countries of Eastern Europe.

Why did Mao Zedong pursue the Cultural Revolution?

The Cultural Revolution was aimed at restoring Mao's status as the leader of the communist revolution in China. Mao wanted to purge what he saw as capitalist bourgeois influences from the country.

How did Japan manage to develop such a strong economy after World War II?

Japan benefited from some government control, outside support in the form of foreign aid, and ready markets for its goods.

Describe the four areas in which Deng Xiaoping and other post-Mao reformers in China tried to change Chinese domestic policy.

-Industry: Foreign investments and technology played an important role during the early phase of industrial renewal.
-Agriculture: Collectives were allowed to lease land to private farmers, who were permitted to sell surplus products privately
-Technology: China sent students overseas to learn new techniques and methods
-National defense: There was a massive expansion and modernization of the Chinese military

How have revolutions marked the history of Latin America in the second half of the 20th century?

Many Latin American countries have experience revolutions. Notable revolutions occurred in Cuba in 1959, Chile in 1973, and Nicaragua in 1979. Marxist governments came to power in the Cuban and Nicaraguan revolutions. An elected Marxist government was ousted by the military in Chile.

How did the communist revolution in Cuba change U.S. foreign policy?

The United States was initially opposed to Fidel Castro's takeover in Cuba since it had a strong, albeit corrupt, ally in Fulgencio Batista. When Castro sought to ally himself with the Soviet Union, the move was deeply troubling to the Eisenhower and then Kennedy administrations. In 1961, President Kennedy authorized an invasion of the island by Cuban exiles, with disastrous results. Afterward, U.S. policymakers abandoned direct intervention and adopted a trade embargo in an effort to discredit Castro by destabilizing the Cuban economy. In 1962, the placement of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba nearly resulted in a nuclear conflict between the United States and the USSR.

How has globalization affected U.S. relations with Latin America?

The trend towards globalization—and the attendant need for inexpensive labor—has resulted in increased U.S. business investment in many Latin American countries, particularly Mexico. Whether past levels of investment will continue is uncertain, however, given the search for ever less expensive sources of labor on the part of U.S. corporations and a growing desire on the part of certain Latin American nations to reduce their economic dependence on the United States.

In what ways was the Korean War a regional conflict?

The Korean War pitted South Korean forces and UN troops from the United States and other nations against North Korean forces backed by China. The war ended in stalemate and continued division between North and South Korea.

Why were the conflicts of the second half of the 20th century more contained than those of the first half of the century?

Several factors contributed to the containment of these conflicts. The United Nations helped broker peace in several conflicts. Many of the countries involved were weary of war and reluctant to allow the conflicts to spread. The threat of nuclear war also helped contain conflicts.

Describe the manner in which Mikhail Gorbachev's proposed policies as leader of the Soviet Union differed from traditional Soviet policy.

Gorbachev's policy of glasnost, or public openness, was a direct break with the repressive and censorial regimes of prior Soviet leaders. His policy of perestroika and its emphasis on a limited role for individual free enterprise was a partial repudiation of Communist ideology.

Give examples of the changing role of women in international leadership positions in the post-World War II era.

Several women ascended to positions of considerable authority in the postwar era, including Margaret Thatcher in Great Britain, Indira Ghandi In India, and Golda Meir in Israel.

How are conditions in the world providing a context for global challenges related to terrorism, the environment, the global economy, and social justice?

What are the conditions that have given rise to the interconnected world economy? Describe this interconnectedness using the automotive industry.

What are the conditions that have given rise to the interconnected world economy? Describe this interconnectedness using the automotive industry.

Economic markets are more connected than ever before with reductions in transportation costs, the instantaneous global communication made possible by advances in information technologies, and the outsourcing of production by firms in the United States and other developed nations. For these reasons, the United States imports many automobiles designed and made in other countries. In addition, foreign countries are constructing auto factories that provide jobs for the U.S. workforce.

How is Al-Qaeda different?

Whereas most terrorist groups were regional in origin and limited in their demands (the Irish Republican Army, for example, was motivated by the prospect of forcing British troops from Northern Ireland), Al-Qaeda is a multinational organization that operates without regard to particular borders or regional concerns.

Unlike other Communist countries, the Cuban government:

concentrated mainly on agricultural improvements.

Why did programs like Chile's experiment with Marxist socialism fail?

hey angered the wealthiest and most influential citizens.

The Mexican election of 2000:

marked the first time the PRI lost a national election in seventy years.

After World War II, the Allies pressured the Japanese to adopt a constitution that created a British-style parliamentary state, guaranteed a free press and freedom of assembly, and which of the following?

the denunciation of war and the use of military force beyond self-defense

The decolonization of Africa occurred due to financial reasons, loss of domestic political support for maintaining colonies, and which of the following?

increased pressure from the indigenous colonized population for freedom and opportunity

The European Economic Community (EEC) was created primarily as:

a common market for people, goods, and capital.

Which of the following sequences of Cold War events is in the correct chronological order?

Berlin Blockade, outbreak of Korean War, Berlin Wall erected, Cuban Missile Crisis

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