Chapter 15 quiz

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masteringmicrobiology

Humans have species resistance to feline immunodeficiency virus for which of the following reasons?
Feline immunodeficiency virus is a nonpathogenic virus.
Human cells produce a special type of interferon that protects against feline immunodeficiency virus.
Human phagocytes are extremely effective at eliminating feline immunodeficiency virus from the body.
Human cells do not have the chemical receptors required for attachment by feline immunodeficiency virus.

Human cells do not have the chemical receptors required for attachment by feline immunodeficiency virus.

Species resistance against certain pathogens is related either to the cell-surface molecules these pathogens need to cause disease, or to the growth conditions of the human body, which may be unfavorable for some pathogens.

Tears contain which of the following antibacterial substances?
sebum
lysozyme
hydrogen peroxide
mucus

lysozyme

In addition to their cleansing action, tears contain lysozyme, an enzyme that breaks down the peptidoglycan in bacterial cell walls.

Phagocytic cells associated with the epidermis are called _____.
erythrocytes
goblet cells
dendritic cells
platelets

dendritic cells

Dendritic cells are phagocytic cells in the epidermis with fingerlike projections that form a network used to intercept invaders.

Why are smokers more likely to have infections with respiratory pathogens?
Respiratory pathogens produce substances that react with tobacco smoke.
Smokers do not produce as much mucus as do nonsmokers.
Smokers do not produce lysozyme in their mucus.
Poisons in tobacco smoke damage cilia that normally help to move pathogens away from the lungs.

Poisons in tobacco smoke damage cilia that normally help to move pathogens away from the lungs.

Tobacco smoke contains substances that damage the cilia in the respiratory tract, making it more difficult for smokers to keep potential pathogens from reaching their lungs.

What will happen if an animal raised in an axenic environment is exposed to a pathogenic microbe later in life?
The animal's second line of defense will respond normally, but the first line of defense will be compromised.
The animal will exhibit a very poor immune response to the pathogen.
The animal's immune system will respond normally to the pathogen.
The animal's immune system will produce an excessive response to the pathogen.

The animal will exhibit a very poor immune response to the pathogen.

Animals raised in axenic environments have immune systems that respond poorly, if at all, to microbial invaders because they have not been constantly stimulated by the presence of normal microbiota.

The skin and the mucous membranes are similar in which of the following aspects?
epithelial cells packed closely together
outer layer of dead cells
production of mucus
multiple layers of epidermal cells

epithelial cells packed closely together

A human cell that maintains an antiviral state induced by alpha or beta interferons for too long will die because _____.
it cannot engage in glucose metabolism
it cannot move
it cannot repair its cytoplasmic membrane
it cannot make proteins

it cannot make proteins

The antiviral state results in the cessation of protein synthesis in a cell, so if this is prolonged, the cell dies.

Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets are formed by a process called _____.

hematopoiesis

Hematopoiesis is the production of the formed elements of the blood by stem cells in the bone marrow.

makes phagocytosis more likely to occur.

Opsonization

allows phagocytes to move outside the bloodstream to fight infection.

diapedesis

is associated with phagocytosis.

Margination

All of the following are related to the process of phagocytosis EXCEPT _____.
hematopoiesis
margination
diapedesis
opsonization

hematopoiesis

Which of the following is a way that antimicrobial peptides can make use of the second line of defense?
They serve as chemotactic factors for leukocytes.
They are found on the skin and mucous membranes.
They interrupt internal signaling in cells.
They punch holes in the cytoplasmic membranes of pathogens.

They serve as chemotactic factors for leukocytes.

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