What is the tendency to use your own group's way of doing things as the yardstick for judging others called?
The famous anthropologist Margaret Mead has said that America is the best place to raise a female child. While many would agree with her, she might also be accused of:
In 2005 the Northwestern University women's lacrosse team won an NCAA championship and was invited to the White House to receive congratulations from the president. Controversy erupted after their visit, when the official photograph revealed that several team members were wearing flip-flops. Despite the outcry, the athletes took the criticism in stride, talking about it on the Today Show and auctioning the offending footwear for charity. Given the reaction and the team's response, what sort of norm did the athletes break by wearing flip-flops to the White House?
The art historian and social critic John Berger has argued that the suit is the first "uniform of the powerful" designed for stationary life. Suits make manual laborers look ridiculous, yet we all still want to wear them. Our very acceptance of this fashion standard condemns most people to seeming clumsy, uncouth, and second-rate. This is why the suit is the classic example of:
How is the study of culture different for sociologists than for anthropologists?
Sociologists usually study a culture they belong to.
According to sociologists, what are signs?
anything designed to meaningfully represent something else
Specified times, like Mardi Gras, when people are allowed to break conventional norms and engage in otherwise unacceptable behaviors (for example, being drunk and rowdy) are called:
What kind of norm is so deeply ingrained that the very thought of breaking it brings feelings of disgust or horror?
When Marshall McLuhan said that "the medium is the message," what did he mean?
The medium through which we deliver our cultural content has the greatest power to change our cultural framework.
The view that technology is the single greatest influence on society today is a concept known as:
Because of their economic strength, western media companies are powerful enough to impose their products on markets worldwide, a phenomenon known as:
What do sociologists call it when cultures that were once distinct become increasingly similar?
In the 2008 election, Barack Obama took 53 percent of the vote, while John McCain took 46 percent. However in the early months of 2009, when his approval ratings were still very high, polls conducted found a significantly larger number of people claimed to have voted for Obama. Historians report that the percentage of people who remember voting for any president rises and falls with approval ratings. More people seemed to believe that they "should" have voted for Obama, making this belief a part of our:
Clashes over values in the United States, especially as represented by liberals and conservatives in the mass media, have been termed:
Ruth Behar, in her book The Vulnerable Observer, argued that you could learn about other cultures from her book only "insofar as you are willing to view them from the perspective of an anthropologist who has come to know others by knowing herself and who has come to know herself by knowing others." Behar is trying to:
avoid the process of "othering," in which only the unusual is studied.
Culture shock is almost never useful in helping sociologists to see that even what is most familiar to us can be bizarre.
The article "Body Ritual Among the Nacirema" is useful to sociologists because:
it challenges people's inability to observe their own cultures.
Although languages differ considerably from one culture to another, the meanings of gestures are commonly understood in the same way by people throughout the world.
Antonio Gramsci argued that when the ruling class, without the use of force, persuades the rest of society that its beliefs and values are the only or best values, they have achieved:
Sociologists use which of the following terms to describe a group whose values and norms oppose the dominant culture?
Marginalized groups in American society, like street punks, the homeless, and skateboarders, often engage in activities that offend or annoy most people. One of the reasons people get so annoyed is that members of these groups don't seem to care that they're the subject of disapproval, which is to say:
they don't seem to care about negative sanctions.
The values, norms, and practices of the most powerful group within a society are called the:
When an employee is promoted instead of more deserving coworkers because she has a special relationship with her boss, it is an example of:
the distinction between ideal culture and real culture.
Today it is possible to travel all over the world, especially if you visit major metropolitan areas, without ever having to eat anything but McDonald's. This is an example of:
During the American occupation of Japan following World War II, the Japanese observed soldiers playing baseball and later adopted it as one of their favorite pastimes. This is an example of:
Which of the following is an example of something that would be part of a person's symbolic culture?
belonging to a political party
When sociologists study culture, they need to emphasize the exceptional and unusual and avoid studying the mundane or everyday.
Many Americans become very concerned when a restaurant tries to serve them a piece of undercooked beef. Despite the fact that many people in Europe regularly eat raw beef, many Americans express disgust at the idea, which suggests that eating raw beef is a:
Although many people feel that expectations for personal space (usually about 18 inches for Americans) are innate, members of many cultures are used to noticeably less personal space than we are, which helps to demonstrate that our expectations for personal space are:
a part of our culture and as such are learned, rather than innate.
In the article "Jihad vs. McWorld," Benjamin R. Barber points out that "in November of 1991 Switzerland's once insular culture boasted best-seller lists featuring Terminator 2 as the No. 1 movie, Scarlett as the No. 1 book, and Prince's Diamonds and Pearls as the No. 1 record album." Many people worry that the prominence of American culture goes beyond the media and represents the wholesale imposition of American values on other cultures, a process called:
Why do ethnocentric people tend to view other cultures as abnormal?
They use their own culture as a standard of judgment.
When Patti Sue took her world tour, she had lunch at McDonald's in Tokyo, ate dinner at Hard Rock Cafe in Hong Kong, purchased clothes at Macy's in London, and was entertained at a Disney show featuring Mickey Mouse and Pluto in Paris. This homogenization of cultures around the world is called:
What do sociologists call rules and guidelines for behavior that is considered acceptable within a group?
all of the above: mores, taboos, folkways, laws
Who were the two anthropologists that studied the Hopi of the southwestern United States and concluded that language not only expresses our thoughts, but also shapes the way that we think?
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf
In many Middle Eastern countries, showing someone the bottom of your foot or shoe is considered to be very rude, so American military personnel stationed in the Middle East had to be instructed to keep their feet inside helicopters when flying low. Why was this instruction needed?
The meaning of gestures is not universal.
Sometimes it's hard for college students to use new forms of technology to communicate with their parents or grandparents. It's very convenient to be able to use an instant message to ask family members a quick question, but they might not know the difference between :-D (laughing) and >:O (yelling), which could lead to serious miscommunication. The problem is that older people may not know the same ____________ as younger people.
signs or symbols
Although more and more people are reading newspapers on portable electronic devices (such as Kindles, iPhones, and laptops) there are many ways in which reading on an electronic device is not the same as reading on newsprint. For instance, a sheet of newsprint allows the editors to use space to indicate the relative importance of a story in a way that a small electronic screen does not, which has led many commentators to conclude that:
the medium is the message.
Although the steam engine is best known as the primary technology of the Industrial Revolution, a steam engine was invented by Hero of Alexandria, a Greek in ancient Rome. However, the engine was only used to open a temple door and not for industrial applications. What does this suggest about technological determinism?
It shows that there are some circumstances where technological determinism does not apply.
In 2008 voters in California approved Proposition 8, which made marriage available exclusively to opposite sex couples. This was one of many battles in the war over gay marriage, which continues to divide the nation as it plays out in the media. The dispute over same-sex marriage is an example of a:
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (also called the principle of linguistic relativity) suggests that:
language can structure our perception of reality.
The article "Body Ritual Among the Nacirema" by Horace Miner suggests that:
daily routines of personal hygiene can be equated with exotic ritual practices.
Even when sociologists study their own cultures, they often still engage in the process of "othering" the people that they study.
A culture war is best illustrated by which of the following examples?
antiabortion advocates demonstrating in front of a family-planning clinic
Recently curators at museums have experienced problems with plastic objects, almost all of which disintegrate over time. The Smithsonian collection contains the first-ever plastic toothbrush, which soon will be nothing more than a pile of crumbs, leading many historians to worry that we will lose the history of our:
The widespread use of plastic in American culture is no accident; plastic offers consumers convenience, disposability, and choice. These advantages of plastic are all elements of:
Which of the following is a way to suspend one's own ethnocentrism, at least temporarily?
adopting cultural relativism
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, some people placed signs with crudely painted skeletons holding cell phones near roadways, usually facing freeway ramps. These signs indicated disapproval of using cell phones while driving, a practice that some states have now made illegal. As a result of these laws:
an informal norm has become a law.
Norms that are not strictly enforced, such as etiquette in the cafeteria and the dress code for class, are referred to as:
In contemporary American culture, people usually assume that "technology" means high-tech, electronic, or digital devices like cell phones or computers.
In an article titled "Sex, Syntax, and Semantics," Lera Borodinsky argues that your mental representations of inanimate objects like forks and frying pans are heavily dependent on the objects' grammatical gender in your native language. To which theory or concept is her argument related?
the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
Which of the following is one of the functions of symbolic culture?
It allows people to communicate.
In America, a married man who has several mistresses is violating a ____________, but if he is married to more than one woman at the same time he is violating a ____________.
In the article "Turning the Tables: Language and Spatial Reasoning," Peggy Li and Lila Gleitman claim to have debunked the theory that speakers of the Mayan language have a different understanding of space and spatial relations than speakers of other languages. What theory is this article attacking?
the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
The famous feminist and social theorist Judith Butler has criticized westerners who want to "free" Muslim women from wearing a veil or burqa. Butler believes that liberation from the veil is not the liberation that many Americans might assume it is. Butler's critique exemplifies what term or concept?
In many cultures the "squat toilet," where one squats rather than sits, is still the most common type of bathroom facility. Americans are often shocked when they encounter these toilets, seeing them as hopelessly disgusting. This attitude is an example of:
How is a subculture different from a counterculture?
Both are distinct from mainstream culture, but a counterculture actively opposes important aspects of the mainstream.
Coca-Cola was first marketed in the 1860s as a patent medicine, designed to offer the virtues of cocaine without the vices of alcohol. The new beverage was invigorating and popular, but today cocaine is not just banned, but widely demonized. This is an example of:
formerly mainstream practices becoming deviant.
"Culture wars" is a term used to refer to the extreme clashes in values that occur when there are efforts to change core values in society.
In the movie Mean Girls, students identified each other using categories like "jock," "cheerleader," "skater," and "nerd." Which theory would argue that such classification systems influence the way that you see people?
the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
The ability to understand another culture in terms of its own norms and values, without reference to any other cultural standards is called:
Many colleges and universities require students to take classes on non-western cultures. Why do these requirements exist?
Colleges value multiculturalism.
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was an activist organization in the 1960s that protested the Vietnam War, racial injustice, and economic exploitation. For the most part, the organization favored direct action and protest, but a small faction attempted to realize change through conventional politics. This faction was never very popular within the group, most of which opposed traditional organizing and politics and sought a radically new form of social organization. Based on this information, you could say that members of SDS were part of a:
The South Korean linguist Heesook Kim has suggested that the use of titles and honorifics in the Korean language significantly affects people's perception of one another. By forcing speakers to use honorifics, Korean draws attention to social status. He believes that honorifics make everyone who speaks Korean more likely to interpret issues in terms of social status. To which concept is Kim's hypothesis related?
the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
It's all too common to see someone driving a car on a busy freeway while cursing and gesturing at another motorist whose poor driving has offended them. Cursing and gesturing are not very nice, but are also:
Which term describes a policy of honoring diverse racial, ethnic, religious, linguistic, and national backgrounds?
The University of California, Santa Barbara, is located near the Pacific Ocean, and many students live within walking distance of the beach. Although it feels perfectly normal to wear a bathing suit while at the beach, most students put on a cover-up or wrap themselves in a towel to make the short walk back to their apartments. They do this because the beach, unlike the street, is a(n) ____________ that makes it seem normal and acceptable to be wearing nothing but a bathing suit.
What do sociologists call the idea that all individuals act like mirrors to one another?
the looking-glass self
Which of the following is an example of an altered life circumstance that will require some degree of resocialization?
all of the above: getting a divorce, starting a family, getting a new job, retiring
Susie isn't old enough to go to school yet, but she loves to play house. She has a toy stove and pretends to be a mother. Sometimes, when that gets boring, she goes outside, takes a garden hose, and pretends to be a firefighter. George Herbert Mead would say that she is:
in the play stage
What does Erving Goffman call it when we help someone save face by preventing them from realizing that they've done something embarrassing?
cooling the mark out
When an individual can internalize the expectations of other specific people, they have learned to:
take the role of the particular or significant other.
Why does the family have such a powerful impact as an agent of socialization?
Families begin the socialization process before there are any other competing influences.
Which of the following is true of expressions given off, as defined by Erving Goffman?
They are typically nonverbal, but observable in various ways.
According to George Herbert Mead, what are children learning when they begin to take the perspective of a generalized other in their games?
the attitudes and expectations of society as a whole
According to the symbolic interactionist George Herbert Mead, the generalized other is:
an understanding of the rules governing a number of different players in related roles.
The term "total institution" refers to organizations that strip members of their previous identities in order to resocialize them.
Research on teen smoking and other deviant behaviors has found that the most important factor in statistically predicting if a teen will take up a particular deviant behavior is the presence or absence of peers who also engage in that behavior. This is probably because the other teens are acting:
as agents of socialization.
Why might socialization change, not just between families, but also within the same family over time?
Parents have no experience when their first child is born, so every subsequent child is socialized according to what has been learned with older siblings.
Socialization refers to the:
process by which people learn the norms, values, and beliefs of their culture.
Chris Spielman was forced to choose between staying with his sick wife and playing professional football. What sort of sociological phenomenon was he experiencing?
Recent research by marine biologists suggests that bottlenose dolphins have names for themselves. Scientists played sounds that they had identified as the names of particular dolphins through a synthesizer (so they did not sound like the voices of particular dolphins) and found that dolphins would respond to the names of other dolphins they were related to or associated with, but ignored the names of strangers. This discovery suggests a much greater degree of self-awareness in aquatic mammals than was previously suspected. If this research holds up, what does it suggest about dolphins?
They have a sense of self similar to humans.
A high school football coach is worried about how she should handle her roster. On one hand, it's her job to try and win as many games as possible, which means playing the best players; on the other, her contract also requires that she try to allow every member of the team to meaningfully participate. The tension that she feels is called:
Increasingly, even very significant events in our lives take place online. It is now common to hear stories of couples breaking up through an instant message or even a text message. Compared to similar interactions in the past, what is missing from these interactions?
If a bride is upset on her wedding day because her family members don't seem excited enough for her, sociologists might argue that the family members are violating:
a feeling rule.
Fumi's family immigrated to New Jersey from Japan when she was 6. She is now 15. According to Figure 4.1, these experiences have been cancelled out by her American schooling.
According to sociologists, an individual's genetic makeup will always determine what kind of personality and character traits he develops in life.
According to the symbolic interactionist George Herbert Mead, all children are essentially born with a developed sense of self.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the case of Isabelle, the child raised in isolation and studied by the sociologist Kingsley Davis?
Isabelle was delighted by the presence of strangers and warmly greeted the social workers who had come to rescue her.
Sigmund Freud once said that the id was like a wild horse, and the ____________ was like a rider astride the horse, struggling to keep it under control.
According to Sigmund Freud, which part of the mind is composed of biological drives, and consequently is the source of psychic energy?
Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in Charles Cooley's model of the looking-glass self?
We attempt to achieve pleasure and avoid pain.
Which part of the minds of feral children would Sigmund Freud expect to be most fully developed?
Imagine a child who consistently gets mediocre grades and is often picked last for a team when games are played at recess. However, he likes to make silly jokes and pranks, and he notices that people laugh when he does those things. The child starts to think that others are laughing with him, not at him. This is part of the process that Charles Cooley called:
the looking-glass self.
Some people are disturbed by Goffman's work, because it seems to suggest that no one is ever being honest about who they are. What would Goffman say to this?
He would say that, regardless of who an individual feels herself to "really" be, she must still present that self; it is never self-evident.
Which one of the following is NOT an element of the looking-glass self?
We determine whether or not other people's evaluations of us are accurate.
The nature vs. nurture debate helps us to understand:
the complex interaction between hereditary traits and social learning.
A traffic cop has pulled over a speeder, only to discover that he has stopped a close friend. The police officer is torn, because his professional obligations demand that he punish the speeder, but his personal obligations suggest that he should give a friend a break. What is this called?
In How Emotions Work, the sociologist Jack Katz examined how drivers, especially in places like Los Angeles, become "pissed off" and experience road rage. He argues that there are several features of both cars and typical highway traffic that can cause extreme anger in a wide range of people, an example of:
the social construction of emotions.
Many people are afraid of hitchhikers. Imagine that, to get a ride, a hitchhiker makes a suitcase out of a gasoline can, so that it looks like he's a stranded motorist, rather than a hitchhiker. A sociologist would say that he was working on:
A famous monologue from Shakespeare's As You Like It begins: "All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players; They have their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts" Which theory of social life could be seen as taking its inspiration from these lines?
Given that we try to understand how others have defined situations, why might expressions given off seem like more trustworthy guides than expressions given?
It is harder to manipulate expressions given off.
What did Harvard Medical School researchers conclude about the effects of the media on young people in Fiji, who until recently lacked widespread access to television?
Television affected young women's body images.
According to the symbolic interactionist George Herbert Mead, why is playing organized games an important part of an older child's development of the self?
Game playing involves taking on multiple roles and learning to anticipate and coordinate with other players' actions.
If a professor were to trip over his own feet and fall down while trying to write something on the blackboard, very few students would point and laugh. And if the professor then loudly insisted, "I meant to do that!" chances are that no one would contradict him, at least not verbally, but instead would assist their instructor in regaining his dignity. What would Goffman call this process?
cooling the mark out
Which of the following agents of socialization has the most enduring, life-long impact on the individual?
Which of the following sources of socialization forms the foundation for all other socializing agents?
Which of the following is true of grief?
The experience of grief is universal, but expressions of grief are cultural.
How does an individual come to possess an achieved status?
both B and D: An achieved status is earned. An achieved status is imposed upon an individual.
In 2000 the Campbell's Soup Company launched an ad campaign that showed prepubescent boys offering soup to prepubescent girls. The girls declined because they were concerned about their calorie intake, but the boys explained that "lots of Campbell's soups are low in calories," which made them okay for the girls to eat. The ads were pulled after parents expressed concern. Why were parents worried?
The ads taught girls to worry about their weights and negatively affected their body images.
What happens to individuals who are not socialized?
They are almost completely devoid of the qualities that we associate with being human.
A study examined how teachers at community colleges handled retirement, finding that the unique culture of such institutions had a significant effect on how retirees coped with their new situations. Which of the following could be the title of a paper written about this study?
The Role-Exit Process of Community College Faculty: A Study of Faculty Retirement
Which of the following statements reflects the understanding of the nature vs. nurture debate?
Nature and nurture are not opposing forces, but constantly modify each other as part of a larger interactive process.
Unlike George Herbert Mead, Charles Cooley did not believe that the self was created largely through social interaction.
Churches often teach their members rules, often codifying these rules into formal commandments to be followed. In that they are at all successful, churches would be called:
agents of socialization.
When you play high stakes poker, it is silly to tell your opponents that you have a good hand. However particularly good poker players say they can read other players' "tells," the subtle and unintentional facial expressions, mannerisms, and body language that reveal what they are thinking. What would Erving Goffman call tells?
expressions given off
Sociologists have often wondered about financial collapses, like those of the 1930s, in which rumors of insolvency, when believed by enough depositors, resulted in bank failures. What sociological concept describes this phenomenon?
the Thomas theorem
A student sitting through a boring class glances over at a friend and rolls her eyes. What would Erving Goffman call this?
an expression of behavior
As children get older, which agent of socialization tends to replace parents as their most intense and immediate influence?
One of the most striking contrasts in restaurants is between the demeanors of cooks and servers. Cooks are, by tradition, loud, vulgar, insensitive, boorish, and rude. Servers, on the other hand, are paid to be nice, pleasant, and courteous. What is the part of a server's job that does not apply to a cook called?
The looking-glass self explains:
how we develop a self-concept based on our perceptions of others' judgments of us.
According to the symbolic interactionist George Herbert Mead, a distinct sense of self is developed in play through a process of "role-taking," when young children learn the guidelines and expectations associated with a variety of roles.
Which theorist argued that if people "define a situation as real, it is real in its consequences"?
Because impression management relies so much on strategies of performance, scholars have called Erving Goffman's ideas:
Which of the following is NOT one of the four predominant agents of socialization in contemporary society?