CH. 21: Salads and Salad Dressings

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After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Identify and describe five different salad types, and select appropriate recipes for use as an appetizer, accompaniment, main course, separate course, or dessert salad. 2. Identify a dozen popular greens; list six categories of other salad ingredients, and recognize several examples from each category. 3. Judge the quality of fruits and complete the pre-preparation procedures for fruit. 4. Identify the four basic parts of a salad. 5. Pr…

Name 10 types of leafy salad greens.

Iceberg lettuce, romain lettuce, Boston lettuce, Bibb lettuce, loose leaf lettuce, escarole, chicory (curly endive), Belgian endive, Chinese cabbage (or celery cabbage), spinach, dandelion greens, watercress, arugula, radicchio, frisee, mesclun, tatsoi, mache, trevios.

Name 8 types of raw vegetables that can be used in salads.

cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, celeriac, cucumbers, Jurusalem artichokes, Kohlrabi, mushrooms, onions, and scallions, peppers, radishes, tomatoes.

Name 8 cooked, pickled or canned vegetables that can be used in salads.

artichoke hearts, asparagus, beans (all kinds), beets, carrots, cauliflower, corn, cucumber pickles, hearts of palm, leeks, olives, peas, peppers, pimentos, potatoes, water chestnuts.

Name the four parts of a salad.

Base or underliner, body, garnish and dressing

When is a salad dressing added to a tossed salad?

at service time or by customer.

What type of lettuce is used in Caesar Salad?

romaine

What should be done to cut fruits such as apples and peaches to prevent them from discoloring?

dip them into an acid.

What steps should you take to dissolve unflavored gelatin in a large liquid?

Stir it into cold liquid, let stand for 5 minutes, heat until dissolved or add to hot liquid and stir until dissolved.

In what order should the following items appear on a salad bar: plates, mixed greens, condiments, dressings?

They are in proper order.

what is the basic ratio of oil to vinegar in Basic French Dressing or Vinaigrette?

3 parts oil to 1 part vinegar.

Another name for romaine lettuce is:
a. cos lettuce
b. bibb lettuce
c. escarole
d. endive

a. cos lettuce

Another name for chicory is:
a. limestone lettuce
b. radicchio
c. loose-leaf lettuce
d. curly endive

d. curly endive

Which of the following has a tightly packed pointed head made up of pale yellow-green to white, crisp waxy leaves with a slightly bitter flavor?
a. cos lettuce
b. Belgian endive
c. witloof chicory
d. both b and c

d. both b (Belgian endive) and c (witloof chicory)

Bread-leaf endive is also known as:
a. escarole
b. cos lettuce
c. bibb lettuce
d. Chinese cabbage

a. escarole

Which of the following kinds of salads is most often served a lunch main course?
a. vegetable salad
b. combination salad
c. green salad
d. gelatin salad

b. combination salad

Which of the following salads is made of green beans, potatoes, lettuce, tune, and olives?
a. Chefs Salad
b. Waldorf Salad
c. Salade Nicoise
d. Garden Salad

c. Salade Nicoise

Which of the following salads is made with apples, celery, and walnuts?
a. Panzanella
b. Salade Nicoise
c. Jellied Fruit Salad
d. Waldorf Salad

d. Waldorf Salad

A well-prepared appetizer salad should__________.
a. stimulate the appetite
b. not be so large as to be filling
c. put the customer in a good frame of mind for the rest of the meal.
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

A main course salad should __________.
a. contain some protein ingredients
b. be large enough to serve as a full meal
c. offer enough variety on the plate to be a balanced meal
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

The purpose of a separate course salad is to _________.
a. cleanse the palette
b. stimulate the appetite
c. substitute for a main course
d. provide a satisfying meal

a. cleanse the palette

Iceberg lettuce __________.
a. wilts faster than other greens
b. is the most popular salad ingredient
c. is seldom mixed with other greens because of its distinctive flavor
d. all of the above

b. is the most popular salad ingredient

Which of the following is a mixture of tender, young baby lettuces?
a. mache
b. treviso
c. arugula
d. mesclun

d. mesclun

Arugula is also know as __________.
a. Rocket
b. Rugula
c. Radicchio
d. both a and b

d. both a (Rocket) and b (Rugula)

Which of the following is not one of the four basic parts of a salad?
a. base
b. border
c. garnish
d. dressing

b. border

After overhearing the following statement from Chef Vert's students during their study group, which one do you think received the best grade on the test on salad preparation?
a. Celeste: "I like to arrange my salad so that it covers the rim of the plate."
b. Germaine: "The perfect salad contains as many colors as you can fit on the plate."
c. Mathilda: "I cut salad ingredients in large enough pieces so that my customers will be able to identify them."
d. Roberto: "I think it is essential to make sure that the ingredients of a salad lie as flat as possible on the plate so that customers have an easy time picking them up with their fork."

c. Mathilda: "I cut salad ingredients in large enough pieces so that my customers will be able to identify them."

When preparing salads, it is important to __________.
a. wash and drain the greens thoroughly
b. arrange them on plates that are not too cold
c. add dressing as soon as possible to prevent wilting
d. be sure that the greens are not exposed to air circulation

a. wash and drain the greens thoroughly

Bound salad differ from combination and vegetable salads in that they are usually mixed with a/an __________ during preparation.
a. antioxidant or acid
b. oil and vinegar combination
c. thick dressing, such as mayonnaise
d. sweet dressing, such as honey dijon

c. thick dressing, such as mayonnaise

Which of the following statements about grain and pasta salads is false?
a. Grains for salads should be undercooked slightly, because they will absorb more moisture from the dressing.
b. Cooked grains may be marinated before being included in salads.
c. Pastas and vegetables to be used in the same salad should be cooked separately.
d. Pasta salads should be made with a tart, flavorful dressing to make up for the bland taste of the cooked pasta.

a. Grains for salads should be undercooked slightly, because they will absorb more moisture from the dressing.

Fruit salads can be __________.
a. dessert salads
b. appetizer salads
c. part of combination luncheon plates
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

A chef's salad is an example of a __________ salad.
a. gelatin
b. bound
c. vegetable
d. combination

d. combination

Which of the following salads is most likely to be served as a main course?
a. gelatin
b. bound
c. vegetable
d. combination

d. combination

If you were reading a history of gelatin salads, you would find that they are closely related to _________.
a. soups
b. aspics
c. bound salads
d. emulsified salads

b. aspics (*a dish in which ingredients are set into a gelatin made from a meat stock or consommé)

When maintaining a salad bar, it is important to __________.
a. wipe the edges of dressing containers
b. refill containers before they begin to look depleted
c. clean up the debris that has been scattered by customers
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Which of the following is the best order for arranging items along a salad bar?
a. plates - crackers and breads - mixed greens - dressings - condiments
b. condiments - crackers and breads - dressings - plates - mixed greens
c. plates - mixed greens - condiments - dressings - crackers and breads
d. mixed greens - dressings - plates - condiments - crackers and breads

c. plates - mixed greens - condiments - dressings - crackers and breads

Salad dressings are __________.
a. sometimes considered cold sauces
b. serve the same functions as sauces
c. liquide or semi-liquids used to flavor salads
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Salad dressings and sauces both _________.
a. enrich
b. add flavor
c. add moisture
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Which of the following is not one of the basic types of salad dressings commonly used today?
a. cooked
b. appetizer
c. oil and vinegar
d. mayonnaise-based

b. appetizer

Of the following oils, __________ oil has the most distinctive taste?
a. corn
b. olive
c. soybean
d. safflower

b. olive

Extra virgin olive oil ________.
a. is an example of a winterized oil
b. is made from the first pressing of olives
c. is often used in the restaurant because of its relatively low cost
d. is a blend of two or more grades of olive oil

b. is made from the first pressing of olives

__________Vinegar is aged in wooden barrels.
a. Cider
b. Sherry
c. Distilled
d. Balsamic

d. Balsamic

__________ vinegar is usually preferred for the best-quality oil-and-vinegar dressings.
a. Wine
b. Cider
c. White
d. none of the above

a. Wine

Which of the following statements is correct about Roquefort cheese?
a. It is a brand name
b. It is the same as blue cheese.
c. It is produced in Switzerland.
d. It is relatively inexpensive in comparison to other cheeses.

a. It is a brand name

A uniform mixture of two unmixible liquids is know as a(n) __________.
a. aspic
b. emulsion
c. cooked dressing
d. none of the above

b. emulsion

The gums, starches, and gelatins in commercial salad dressings act as __________.
a. flavorings
b. emulsifiers
c. antioxidants
d. anticoagulants

b. emulsifiers

A temporary emulsion (such as a simple oil and vinegar dressing)__________.
a. must be shaken before it is served
b. will separate soon after it has been shaken
c. will take longer to separate the longer and harder it is beaten or shaken
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

__________ is the most important emulsified dressing.
a. Italian
b. French
c. Vinaigrette
d. Mayonnaise

d. Mayonnaise

When making mayonnaise, it is essential to __________.
a. add the oil all at once
b. use highly flavored ingredients
c. have all the ingredients as cold as possible
d. beat the egg yolks well in a bowl

d. beat the egg yolks well in a bowl

A difference between cooked salad dressing and mayonnaise is that cooked dressing __________.
a. is made with more oil
b. has a more tart flavor
c. is very different in appearance
d. none of the above

b. has a more tart flavor

True or False
Two types of salad greens that should not normally be used by themselves are escarole and chicory.

True

True or False
Stainless steel knives are best for cutting salad ingredients.

True

True or False
Cooked foods to be mixed with mayonnaise must be chilled before mixing.

True

True or False
Canned pineapple should not be added to gelatin salads, because the gelatin will not set.

False

True or False
Solid ingredients should be mized with gelatin as soon as the gelatin has congealed.

False

True or False
If lemon juice is added to a gelatin salad, the amount of gelatin may have to be increased.

True

True or False
To make mayonnaise, you may use up to one cup of oil per large egg yolk.

True

True or False
All ingredients for making mayonnaise should be thoughly chilled before production is begun.

False

True or False
Vinaigrette is a type of emulsfied dressing.

False

True or False
Cooked salad dressing looks like mayonnaise but often contains no oil and is thickened with starch.

True

True or False
Meslun is a mixture of tender, baby lettuces.

True

True or False
Mache is a bitter, slightly tough salad green that should always be mixed with milder, more tender greens.

False

True or False
Radicchio and treviso both have red leaves.

Ture

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