During the Renaissance, a more secular, or worldly, viewpoint developed
Venice was a republic with an elected leader called a Doge.
Machiavelli believed that political activity should be restricted by moral principles
Humanists educators stressed physical education as well as intellectual stimulation
Renaissance artists sought to imitate nature in their works.
The most important northern school of art in the fifteenth century was found in Flanders.
Martin Luther believed that humans gain salvation through faith and good works
The Edict of Worms confirmed Martin Luther's ideas and was an official statement in support of his theses.
Under Charles V, the Holy Roman Empire was restricted to ruling lands in Bohemia and Italy.
One of the core beliefs of Calvinism is the idea of predestination.
The Anabaptists were accepted and tolerated by Protestants and Catholics alike.
The Council of Trent gave the Rom Catholic Church a clear body of doctrine and a unified purpose under the leadership of the pope.
Possibly used by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 as a model for a Plan of Union for the British Colonies.
The Grand Council, an experiment in democracy, was
Groups of Anasazi formed a large community at _____, where they built a remarkable series of cliff dwellings
composed of city states,each governed by a heredity ruling class
The mayan civilization was
delay the final destruction of the world
The Aztec practiced human sacrifice in order to
kept records using a system of knotted strings called the quipu
Since the Inca lacked a writing system, they
What was the language taught to the people conquered by the Inca
they took the cross on the Spaniards' breastplate to be the sign that Quetzalcoatl was returning
The Aztec initially accepted the Spanish because
the earth mounds they built
The Hopewell peoples are especially known for
an alliance of five groups
The Great Peace created
food, clothing, tools, and shelter
The Plains Indians used the buffalo for
______ is the name given to the areas of Mexico and Central America that were civilized before the Spaniards
The Aztec capital,____ was built on an island in the middle of Lake Texcoco
a city built by the Inca, and serves as the finest example of Incan architecture
Machu Picchu was
lack of a natural immunity to diseases that the Spanish brought with them from Europe
One of the factors that contributed to the downfall of both the Inca and the Aztec empire was their
After the Incan emperor died from smallpox, which of his sons won the battle for his throne?
established a new capital at Lima
After conquering the Incan capital of Cuzco, Pizarro
Spanish mercenaries were let loose to sack the city of Rome
The war between France and Spain for control of Italy ended when the
was a painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, and mathematiccian
Leonardo da Vinci was an excellent example of Renaissance Italy's social ideal becaue he
works written in defense of women
Christine de Pizan is best known for her
The frescoes painted by _____ have long been regarded as the first masterpieces of early Renaissance art.
if people read the classics, and especially the basic works of Christianity, they would become more pious
Christian humanists believed that
___ was the first Protestant faith
accepted the division of Christianity in Germany
The Peace of Ausburg formally
the formation of the Consistory
Part of Calivin's reformation of the icty Geneva included
did nothing to change women' subordinate role in society
Despite their importance in developing a new view of the family, Protestants
Ignatius of Loyola
___founded the Society of Jesus, also known as the Jesuits
described the characterists of a perfect Renaissace noble
in 1528, Baldassare Castiglione wrote "The Book of the Courtier", which
Strengthen business or family ties
Parents in Renaissance Italy carefully arranged marriage, often to
Chaucer's use of the English vernacular was important in making his dialect the chief ancestor of the modern English Language.
Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales," is an important work because
The____ movement had a profound effect on education
Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo
The High Renaissance in Italy is associated with which three artists
_______ was the best known of all Christian humanists
attacked the abuses in the sale of indulgences, beginning the Protestant Reformation
The publication of Martin Luther's Ninety-five Theses
Calvin agreed with Luther on most important doctrines except
Both the Catholics and the Protestants considered the ___ to be dangerous radicals
reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs
The final decrees of the Coucil of Trent
very profitable, since da Gama returned with a cargo of spices and made a profit of several thousand percent/
Vasco de Gama's dicovery of a route to India by sea proved to be
___ went to his grave believing he had discovered a westward passage to Asia, when in fact he had actually discovered the America's
What was the name of the set of principles that dominated economic thought in the seventeenth century?
Who were the first European settlers of the Hudson River valley?
Originally, African slaves were brought to the Americas to supply labor for the
The Moluccas were known to Europeans as the
___ became the dominant religion on the Southeast Asain mainland from 1500 to 1800
To portugese explorers, the southern coast of West Africa became known as the
established a line of demarcation between territories controlled by Portugal and those controlled by Spain
The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494
____ explored the New England coastline of the Americas for England
The middle passage
What was the name for the journey of slaves from Africa to America?
the spice trade there was enormously profitable
European rulers and merchants were determined to gain control of the islands of Southeast Asia because
the mainland states were able to unite and drive the Europeans out.
Europeans had less impact on the mainland states of Southeast Asia because
balance of trade
The ____ is the difference in values between what a nation imports and what it exports over time
the idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God
James I of England believed in the divine right of kings, which is
The ___ were Protestants in England who were inspired by Calvinist ideas
take control of England and eventually establish a military dictatorship
Oliver Cromwell's defeat of the king's forces allowed him to
a system of government in which a ruler holds total power
what is absolutism?
Seven Percent of the toal French population wre
gave the Huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy all political privileges
The Edict of Nantes recognized Catholism as the offical religion of France, and
The Thirty Years' War involved all the major European powers except with nation?
the invasion of England by William of Orange, which overthrew James II with almost no bloodshed
what was the "Glorious Revolution"?
taking away the Huguenots' political and military rights and executing conspirators
Cardinal Richelieu strengthened the power of the monarchy by
_______ sought to increase the wealth and power by France by following the ideas of mercantilism
The ideas of _____ can be found in the American Declaration of Independence and the United States
the Bosporus and the Dardanelles
Ottoman expansion in the early fourteenth century eventually led to their control over
converted to Islam and trained as foot soldiers or administrators to serve the sultan
Recruited from the local Christian population in the Balkans, the janissaries were
reached the high point of its glory
Under Shah Abbas, the Safavid dynasty
that Shah Ismail was a direct successor of the prophet Muhammad
The Safavid rulers were eagerly supported by the Shiites, who believed
Who established the Mogul dynasty?
was empowered by the British crown to fight any force that threatened the East India Company's power in India
Sir Robert Clive was an aggressive British empire builder who
Shah Jahan had the ____ built in Agra in memory of his wife
the northwest corner of the Anatolian Peninsula
In the late thirteenth century, a new group of Turks under their leader Osman began to build power in
Under the leadership of ______, the Ottoman conquered Constantinople and gained dominance over the Balkans and the Anatolian Peninsula
The__ brought an era of unity to the subcontinent of India in the 1600s
heavy artillery and successful negotiators
What two elements aided Akbar in gaining control of almost all of India?
What Mogul school of painting combined Persian with Indian Motifs?
___ was the first to argue that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe
Showed how one law could explain all motion in the universe
Isaac Newton's universal law of gravitation
Use inductive reasoning
Francis Bacon, an English philosopher, believed scientists should
molded by their experiences
John Locke's ideas suggest that people were
like a clock
To Voltaire and many other philosophes, the universe was
an entire society agrees to be goverened by its general will
In Jean-Jacques Rousseau's concept of a socail contract
Great Britain gained control of India and North America, making it the world's greatest colonial power
As a result of the Treaty of Paris in 1763
a meeting of delegates to revise the Articles of Confederation
The Constitutional Convention began as
the universe is a series of concentric spheres with Earth fixed at the center
According to the Ptolemaic system,
the heavenly bodies were composed of material substance just like Earth, not pure orb of light.
Galileo's observations seemed to indicate that
Who has been rightly called the father of modern rationalism?
analysis of the governmental system of checks and balances
Montesquieu's most lasting contribution to political thought was his
the state should not regulate the economy
Adam Smith believed in laissez-faire, by which he meant that
Which British head of cabinet acquired Canada and India
Articles of Confederation
The American nation's first constition was called the