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Summer class

Appendicular

Relating to limbs and their attachments to the axis

Articulation

(anatomy) the point of connection between two bones or elements of a skeleton (especially if the articulation allows motion)

Axial

fundamental division of our body. Makes up the main axis of our body, includes the head, neck, and trunk.

Bursa

a fibrous sac between certain tendons and bones that is lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid

Diaphysis

the main (mid) section of a long bone

Epiphyseal

Growth plate.Cartilaage between epiphysis and diaphysis of long bones.

Fontanel

any membranous gap between the bones of the cranium in an infant or fetus

Haversian system

structural unit of bone that receives nutrition and removes wastes

ligament

connects bone to bone

ossification

the developmental process of bone formation

osteoblast

a cell from which bone develops

osteoclast

cell that functions in the breakdown and resorption of bone tissue

paranasal sinus

- frontal
-ethmoid
-sphenoid
-maxillary

periosteum

a dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones (except at their extremities) and serving as an attachment for tendons and muscles

suture

an immovable joint (especially between the bones of the skull)

symphysis

Type of joint in which bones are joined by fibrocartilage

synovial fluied

A thick slippery fluid that prevents friction within joint cavities.

Actin

contractile protein in the sarcomeres of muscle fibers, is pulled by myosin.

Antagonistic muscles

muscle pairs arranged to work against eachother to move a joint

creatine phosphate

an organic compound of creatine and phosphoric acid

depolarization

the process during the action potential when sodium is rushing into the cell causing the interior to become more positive

fascia

a sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue separating or binding together muscles and organs etc

insertion

the point of attachment of a muscle to the part that it moves

isometric

of or involving muscular contraction in which tension increases while length remains constant

lactic acid

produced in muscles during rapid exercise when the body cannot supply enough oxygen to the tissues

muscle fatigue

inability of of a muscle to contract when stimulated caused by lack of oxygen, energy, and increased lactic acid

muscle sense

the awerness of body movements and of the location of body parts that results from proper coordination between tthe muscular and nervous system.

muscle tone

the state of balanced muscle tension that makes normal posture, coordination, and movement possible

myoglobin

Protein of muscle that stores and transports oxygen. Contains iron.

myosin

a type of protein filament that acts as a motor protein with actin filaments to cause cell contraction.

Nueromuscular junction

The termination of a motor neuron on the sarcolemma of a muscle fiber; the synapse is the microscopic space between the two structures.

Origin

less moveable of the two bones is considered to be the starting point of the muscle

oxygen debt

a cumulative deficit of oxygen resulting from intense exercise

polarization

The distribution of ions on either side of a membrane; in a resting neuron or muscle cells, sodium ions are more abundant of the outside the cell, giving the membrane a positive charge outside and a relative negative charge inside.

Prime mover

A muscle that is the primary actor in a given movement, that is, the muscle that produces the movement in muscle contraction.

sarcolemma

an extensible membrane enclosing the contractile substance of a muscle fiber

sarcomeres

protein filaments inside a myofibril are organized into repeating functional units

synergistic muscle

muscles having similar and mutualistic functions.

tendon

a cord or band of inelastic tissue connecting a muscle with its bony attachment

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