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Aristotle

a Greek philosopher who was one of the first people to classify organisms

binomial nomenclature

two word naming system developed by Linnaeus

carrier

an individual who has the gene for a genetic disorder but does not express the trait

crossing- over

the exchange of corresponding pieces of DNA between like (homologous) chromosomes

DNA

molecule that contains the information needed by a cell to direct its activities and determine its characteristics

gametes

sex cells which are produced during the process of meiosis

genotype

an organism's genetic make-up or allele combination- its "letter" code Example : Tt

genus

first word of a scientific name

Gregor Mendel

concluded that traits (genes) are inherited through the passing of factors (genes) from parents to offspring

heterozygous

an organism with different alleles for a trait, represented by one upper-case letter and one lower-case letter

karyotype

a chart showing pairs of chromosomes

Linnaeus

first scientist to give species a 2-word scientific name

meiosis

produces four new genetically different cells that have half the number of chromosomes that an organism's body cells have

metaphase

chromosomes line up in the "middle"

pedigree

a family record that shows how a trait is inherited over several generations

phenotype

an organism's physical characterictics or visible trait. Example: tall

reproductive cell (sperm, egg)

contains half the chromosomes

sex-linked traits

found on the 23rd pair of chromosomes

taxonomy

the identification and classification of organisms

upper-case letter

used to indicate a dominate allele in Punnett squares

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