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fluid

a substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its container; a liquid or a gas

surface tension

a force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together, thereby decreasing surface area to the smallest possible size

sublimation

the change of state from a solid directly to a gas

dipole

created by equal but opposite charges that are separated by a short distance

dipole-dipole forces

forces of attraction between polar molecules

hydrogen bonding

the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule

colloid

a mixture consisting of particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and suspensions forming mixtures known as colloid dispersions

electrolyte

a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current

nonelectrolyte

a substance that dissolbes in water to give a solution that does not conduct an electric current

soluble

capable of being dissolved

solute

the substance dissolved in a solution

solution

a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase

solvent

the dissolving medium in a solution

suspension

a mixture in which the particles in the solvent are so large that they settle out unless the mixture in constantly stirred or agitated

effervescence

the rapid escape of a gas from the liquid in which it is dissolved

heat of solution

the net amount of energy absorbed or released as heat when a specific amount of solute dissolves in a solvent

Henry's law

the solubiliby of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid

hydration

a solution process with water as the solvent

immiscible

liquid solutes and solvents that are not soluble in each other

miscible

liquid solutes and solvents that are able to dissolve freely in one another in any proportion

saturated solution

a solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute

solubility

the amount of a substance required to form a saturated solution with a specific amount of solvent at a specified temperature

solvated

a solute particle that is surrounded by solvent molecules

solution equilibrium

the physical state in which the opposing processes of dissolution and crystallization of a solute occur at equal rates

supersaturated solution

a solution that contains more dissolbed solute than a saaturated solution contains under the same conditions

unsaturated solution

a solution that contains less solute that a saturated solution under the existing conditions

concentration

a measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution

molality

the concentration of a solution expressed in moles of solute per kilogram of solvent

molarity

the number of moles of solute in one liter of solution

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