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Treaty of Vereeniging

1910-peace treaty @ the end of the Anglo-Boer war, let British employ cheap labor in the mines, Edward VII = new authority

Boers

Dutch farmers that moved inland in S. Africa to farm

Bantu

members of a group of native people of S. Africa and the language spoken by them

trekboer

farmers that left the cape colony and moved inland

SAIC

South African Indian Congress, formed by Gandhi to organize Indians and to get their basic rights

ANC

African National Congress formed in 1912 by conservative African men to oppose discrimination. not very successful until after 1930s

Great Trek

migration in 1835-1837 of many boers northward to move away from the British rule in capetown

ICU

Industrial and Commercial Workers Union-organized strikes, very successful in 1920s

Gandhi

came to South Africa in 1983-wanted to rid the country of prejudice based on skin color, formed the SAIC

Khoisan

hunter-gatherers/farmers who relied on grazing land, sheep, goats, and cattle

Xhosa

a tribal group made up of Bantu people (2nd largest ethnic group)

Voortrekker

Dutch-speaking people who migrated by wagon from the Cape Colony from 1836 on. Wanted to further escape the British rule

Battle of Blood River

December 16, 1838-battle between Zulus and Afrikaners (Afrikaners later claimed that this battle proved that God was in support of their superiority over blacks)

Orange Free State

"independent republic" a province of the Union of South African in 1910

Colonialism

the practice of having political power over another country, filling it with settlers, and economically benefitting from it

Apartheid

"separate" a system of discrimination in S. Africa that kept blacks, whites, Asians, and coloureds separate (1948-1990)

Zulu

tribal group made up of Bantu people (largest ethnic group)

Jan van Riebeeck

Dutch man who established the 1st permanent European settlement @ the Cape of Good Hope on behalf of the DEIC

DEIC

a Dutch trading company founded in 1652-established the 1st permanent settlement @ Cape of Good Hope

Afrikaner

means "African" in Afrikaans-Africans descended from the Dutch settlers of the 1600s

Afrikaans

Dutch-based language developed in S. Africa

African

a person (especially a black person) from Africa

coloured

mixed-race population descended from interbred slaves, whites, and khoisan

Steenkamp

a member of the famous Retief family of which Peter Retief was one of the foremost voortrekkers

1913 Natives Land Act

1st major legislation creating separate areas for Europeans and Africans to live

Unification

1910- British colonies and Afrikaner republics joined as Union of S. African (prevents black wealth and allows whites to flourish)

Concentration Camps

Afrikaner women and children were taken from their homes to less than ideal camps (28,000 died)

Scorched Earth Campaign

(Lord Kitchener) March 1910-British troops burned down ~30,000 Boer houses and farms

Pass System

booklets that blacks were required to carry

Contract System

African mine workers had contracts that bound them to work for long periods of time

Compound System

cramped barracks where thousands died each year, lacked food and ample supplies

Deep Mining

type of mining needed to get gold (requires lots of $ and workers) very hard and dangerous

Mineral Revolution

1867-Afrikaners discovered diamonds (urbanized S. Africa) British saw chance to make $

Transvaal

former province in Northeast S. Africa-independent republic formed after Great Trek-resistance to annexation by Britain in 1877 led to Anglo-Boer war

Natal

province in E. South Africa where Gandhi came

Cape Colony

area of S. Africa that became a British Colony in 1814, 1910-joined Union of S. Africa

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