Marriage, Family, and Kinship

221 terms by EMFord

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ANTHRO 101

arranged marriage

Any marriage in which the selection of the spouse is outside the control of the bride and groom.

bride service

Work or service performed for the bride's family by the groom for a specified period of time either before or after the marriage.

bridewealth

The transfer of goods from the groom's lineage to the bride's lineage to legitimize marriage.

cross cousins

Children of one's mother's brother or father's sister.

divorce

The legal and formal dissolution of a marriage.

dowry

The transfer of goods or money from the bride's family to the groom or the groom's family in order to legalize or legitimize a marriage.

endogamy

A rule requiring marriage within a specified social or kinship group.

exogamy

A rule requiring marriage outside of one's own social or kinship group.

extended family

The family that includes in one household relatives in addition to a nuclear family.

incest taboo

The prohibition of sexual intimacy between people defined as close relatives.

kibbutz

A communal farm or settlement in Israel.

levirate

The practice of a man marrying the widow of a deceased brother.

monogamy

The marital practice of having only one spouse at a time.

nuclear family

The most basic family unit, composed of wife, husband, and children.

parallel cousins

Children of one's mother's sister or father's brother.

polyandry

The marriage of a woman to two or more men at the same time.

polygyny

The marriage of a man to two or more women at the same time.

postpartum sex taboo

The rule that a husband and wife must abstain from any sexual activity for a period of time after the birth of a child.

preferential cousin marriage

A preferred form of marriage between either parallel or cross cousins.

reciprocal exchange

The equal exchange of gifts between the families of both the bride and groom to legitimize a marriage.

role ambiguity

Confusion about how one is expected to behave.

serial monogamy

The practice of having a succession of marriage partners, but only one at a time.

sororate

The practice of a woman marrying the husband of her deceased sister.

affinal

related by marriage

arranged marriage

the process by which senior family members significantly control the choice of their children's spouses

avunculocal residence

system under which a married couple lives with the husband's mother's brother

bifurcation

a principle of classifying kin under which different kinship terms are used for the mother's side of the family and the father's side of the family

bilateral descent

system of descent under which individuals are equally affiliated with their mother's and their father's descent groups

bilocal residence

system under which a married couple has the choice of living with the husband's family or the wife's family

bride service

the cultural rule that a man must work for his bride's family for a variable length of time either before or after the marriage

bridewealth

goods presented by the groom's kin to the bride's kin to legitimize a marriage

clan

a unilineal kinship group whose members believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor but who cannot trace this link through known relatives

collateral kin

kin descended from a common ancestor but not in a direct ascendant or descendent line, such as cousins or siblings

composite (compound) family

an aggregate of nuclear families linked by a common spouse

conjugal tie

the relationship between a husband and wife formed by marriage

consanguineal

related by birth

consanguinity

blood ties between people

corporate descent groups

permanent units that have an existence beyond the individuals who are members at any given time

descent

the culturally established affiliation between a child and one or both parents

descent group

a group of kin who are descendants of a common ancestor, extending beyond two generations

double descent

the tracing of descent through both matrilineal and patrilineal links, each of which is used for different purposes

dowry

presentation of goods by the bride's kin to the family of the groom or to the couple

ego (kinship studies)

the person from whose perspective a kinship chart is viewed

endogamy

a rule prescribing that a person must marry within a particular group

exogamy

a rule specifying that a person must marry outside a particular group

extended family

family based on blood relations extending over three or more generations

incest taboos

prohibitions on sexual relations between relatives

inheritance

the transfer of property between generations

kindred

a unique kin network made up of all the people related to a specific individual in a bilateral kinship system

kinship

a culturally defined relationship established through blood ties or marriage

kinship system

the totality of kin relations, kin groups, and terms for classifying kin in a society

kinship terminology

the words used to identify different categories of kin in a particular culture

levirate

the custom whereby a man marries the widow of a deceased brother

lineage

a group of kin whose members trace descent from a known common ancestor

marriage

the customs, rules, and obligations that establish a special relationship between sexually cohabiting adults, between them and any children they take responsibility for, and between the kin of the married couple

matrilineage

a lineage formed by descent in the female line

matrilineal descent

a rule that affiliates a person to kin of both sexes related through females only

matrilocal residence

system under which a husband lives with his wife's family after marriage

monogamy

a rule that permits a person to be married to only one spouse at a time

neolocal residence

system under which a couple establishes an independent household after marriage

non-unilineal (cognatic) descent

a system of descent in which both the father's and the mother's lineages have equal claim to the individual

nuclear family

a family organized around the conjugal tie (the relationship between husband and wife) and consisting of a husband, a wife, and their children

patrilineage

a lineage formed by descent in the male line

patrilineal descent

a rule that affiliates a person to kin of both sexes related through males only

patrilocal residence

system under which a bride lives with her husband's family after marriage

polyandry

a rule permitting a wife to have more than one husband at a time

polygamy

a rule allowing more than one spouse

polygyny

a rule permitting a husband to have more than one wife at a time

sororate

the custom whereby, when a man's wife dies, her sister is given to him as a wife

succession

the transfer of office or social position between generations

unilineal descent

a rule specifying that membership in a descent group is based on links through either the maternal line or the paternal line, but not both

affinal

Relatives by marriage; in-laws.

ambilineal descent

A form of bilateral descent in which an individual may choose to affiliate with either the father's or mother's descent group.

bifurcation

A principle of classifying kin under which different kinship terms are used for the mother's side of the family and the father's side of the family.

bilateral descent

System of descent under which individuals are equally affiliated with their mothers' and their fathers' descent group.

clan

A unilineal kinship group whose members believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor but who cannot trace this link through known relatives.

cognatic descent

Any nonunilineal system of descent.

collateral kin

Kin descended from a common ancestor but not in a direct ascendent or descendent line, such as siblings and cousins.

complementary opposition

A political structure in which higher-order units form alliances that emerge only when lower-order units come into conflict.

consanguineal relatives

Relatives by blood.

consanguinity

Blood ties between people.

corporate descent groups

Permanent kinship groups that have an existence beyond the membership at any given time.

cross cousins

The children of a parent's siblings of the opposite sex (mother's brothers, father's sisters).

descent

The culturally established affiliation between a child and one or both parents.

descent group

A group of kin who are descendants of a common ancestor, extending beyond two generations.

double descent

The tracing of descent through both matrilineal and patrilineal links, each of which is used for different purposes.

exogamy

A rule specifying that a person must marry outside a particular group.

genitor

A biological father.

inheritance

The transfer of property between generations.

kindred

A unique kin network made up of all the people related to a specific individual in a bilateral kinship system.

kinship

A culturally defined relationship established on the basis of blood ties or through marriage.

kinship system

The totality of kin relations, kin groups, and terms for classifying kin in a society.

kinship terminology

The words used to identify different categories of kin in a particular culture.

lineage

A group of kin whose members trace descent from a known common ancestor.

lineal kin

Blood relations linked through descent, such as Ego, Ego's mother, Ego's grandmother, and Ego's daughter.

matrilineage

A lineage formed by descent in the female line.

matrilineal descent

A rule that affiliates a person to kin of both sexes related through females only.

nepotism

The granting of privilege or favoritism on the basis of family relationships.

nonunilineal descent

Any system of descent in which both father's and mother's lineages have equal claim to the individual.

parallel cousins

The children of a parent's same-sex siblings (mother's sisters, father's brothers).

pater

The socially designated father of a child, who may or may not be the biological father.

patrilineage

A lineage formed by descent in the male line.

patrilineal descent

A rule that affiliates a person to kin of both sexes related through males only.

phratry

A unilineal descent group composed of a number of clans whose members feel themselves to be closely related.

segmentary lineage system

A form of sociopolitical organization in which multiple descent groups (usually patrilineages) form at different levels and function in different contexts.

succession

The transfer of office or social position between generations.

totem

An animal, plant, or other aspect of the natural world held to be ancestral or to have other intimate relationships with members of a group.

transmigrant

Immigrants who maintain close relations with their home countries.

transnationalism

The pattern of close ties and frequent visits by immigrants to their home countries.

unilineal descent

Descent group membership based on links through either the maternal or the paternal line, but not both.

arranged marriage

The process by which senior family members exercise a great degree of control over the choice of their children's spouses.

avunculocal residence

System under which a married couple lives with the husband's mother's brother.

bilocal residence

System under which a married couple has the choice of living with the husband's or the wife's family.

blended family

Kinship networks occasioned by divorce and remarriage in the United States which include the previously divorced spouses and their new marriage partners.

bride service

The cultural rule that a man must work for his bride's family for a variable length of time either before or after the marriage.

bridewealth

Goods presented by the groom's kin to the bride's kin to legitimize a marriage (formerly called "bride price").

composite (compound) family

An aggregate of nuclear families linked by a common spouse.

conjugal tie

The relationship between a husband and wife formed by marriage.

consanguineal

Related by blood.

cross cousins

The children of a parent's siblings of the opposite sex (mother's brothers, father's sisters).

domestic group (household)

Persons living in the same house, usually, but not always members of a family.

dowry

Presentation of goods by the bride's kin to the family of the groom or to the couple.

endogamy

A rule prescribing that a person must marry within a particular group.

exogamous group

A group within which one is not permitted to marry.

exogamy

A rule specifying that a person must marry outside a particular group.

extended family

Family based on blood relations extending over three or more generations.

fraternal polyandry

A custom whereby a woman marries a man and his brothers.

incest taboos

Prohibitions on sexual relations between relatives.

levirate

The custom whereby a man marries the widow of a deceased brother.

marriage

The customs, rules, and obligations that establish a socially endorsed relationship between adults and children, and between the kin groups of the married partners.

matrilineal

A lineage formed by descent in the female line.

matrilocal residence

System under which a husband lives with his wife's family after marriage.

monogamy

A rule that permits a person to be married to only one spouse at a time.

neolocal residence

System under which a couple establishes an independent household after marriage.

nuclear family

A family organized around the conjugal tie (the relationship between husband and wife) and consisting of a husband, a wife, and their children.

parallel cousins

The children of a parent's same-sex siblings (mother's sisters, father's brothers).

patrilineal

A society that reckons descent through the male line.

patrilocal residence

System under which a bride lives with her husband's family after marriage.

polyandry

A rule permitting a woman to have more than one husband at a time.

polygamy

A rule allowing more than one spouse.

polygyny

A rule permitting a man to have more than one wife at a time.

sororal polygyny

A form of polygyny in which a man marries sisters.

sororate

The custom whereby, when a man's wife dies, her sister is given to him as a wife.

stem family

A nuclear family with a dependent adult added on.

surrogate motherhood

A variety of reproductive technologies in which a woman helps a couple to have a child by acting as a biological surrogate, carrying an embryo to term.

affinal kin

People related through marriage.

ambilocal residence

A residence pattern in which a married couple may choose either matrilocal or patrilocal residence.

bride service

A designated period of time when the groom works for the bride's family.

bridewealth

Money or valuable goods paid by the groom or his family to the bride's family upon marriage; also called bride-price.

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