occurs in unstressed word or syllable - schwa most common
Variety of language used for a particular purpose or setting
cannot stand alone, contains a subject and a verb, begins with a relative pronoun who or whom, whose, that or which, or a relative adverb where, when or why; functions as an adjective - answers What kind, how many, which one?
study of meaning
study of signs or symbols of all kinds, what they mean and how they relate to the things or ideas they refer to
can be grade specific or an ESL class. Content is taught by integrating language and content objectives in the same lesson, content is scaffolded to produce comprehensible input and modified grade level curriculum, supplementary material, alternative material
teach grade level material in English and in a comprehensible and engaging manner while developing language skills. Contains language and content objectives, modified curriculum, supplementary materials, alternative assessment
1st stage of SLA at pre production stage - students may not communicate during this time except in nonverbal ways.
present learners with simple linguistic situations that they were to observe and then describe in the target language, focusing especially on actions they witnessed. Teacher is silent after sets up classroom situations. Learners have to work with what they know to absorb learning.
sheltered instruction observation protocol
Stages of SLA
Krashen - PEPSI A- preproduction, early production, speech emergence, intermediate fluency, advanced fluency
Strategy Based Instruction
students are given the opportunity to understand what they can learn and how they can learn the language more effectively and efficiently - they are aware of what strategies they can use and who/how/when to use them.
position immediately before a verb
uses different forms of the past and present to express matters of urgency, formality, possibility, or speculuation, ie. "If I were---"
part of a sentence but doesn't express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself
relaxed environment (dim light, soft music) student listen to dialogues, then practice them. STudents may become a character in the target language. Designed to place as much language teaching and emphasis on learner personality and motivation as that typically placed on intellect.
given to determine what is known in a point in time, ie. state assessments, end of unit tests
social underlying proficiency (conversational language)
requires est or most - the highest of the comparison levels
what we say or write - literal meaning of words
teachers of english to speakers of other languages
Top-Down Reading Approach
reading for meaning
Transitional Bilingual Program
receive instruction in L1 for at most 3 years, the goal is to transition students out into all English classrooms. Provides support in learning core subjects while learning English. L1 not developed nor attention given to its maintenance once mainstreamed. AKA - early exit bilingual program
Two- Way/Dual Immersion
goal to develop speaking, reading, writing proficiency in both L1 & L2. The class is made up of 1/2 English speakers and 1/2 other language speaker. Instruction goes up to 50/50 in each language
Chomsky - no dialect or language is more complex or sophisticated than the other. We are all born with the capacity to learn any language w/o formal instruction
zone of proximal development
Vygotsky- distance between developmental level and level of potential developmental. Area between independent performance and assisted performance