She Walks in Beauty (Pg. 612)
G. Byron - Narrator sees a perfect girl, but if you change one thing about her/scenery she won't be half as beautiful. (1814, 1815)
*Goudy Day-Prefers Night to Day, Night = vulnerable/mysterious.
*Assuming innocence of girl, physiognomy-characteristics derived from appearance.
* There is a real person, but he is projecting much of his own fantasies on her. His "description" tells a lot about himself.
The Chimney Sweeper - Innocence (Pg. 85)
William Blake - (1789).
*Innocence-child accepts what cards have been dealt, but don't complain and don't cry out for change. Children of innocence are ignorant.
*White hair, children had prematurely grown old bc of stress of situation, wasn't a safe job.
*"Coffins of black" - inevitable death - normally young.
*life after death will be pleasant.
*Obedience - be a good boy and you'll be rewarded, manipulating the children.
*Never want joy bc will always have it.
The Chimney Sweeper - Experience (Pg. 90)
William Blake - (1790-92; 1794).
*Experience-Child or adult has a greater sense of knowledge & justice, sometimes an outsider looking in.
*looking at outside of chimney
*Children are working, parents are free to go to church
*"Bc I was happy" - he was punished for being happy, maliciousness
*hypocrysy - those praising god aren't just themselves
*Heaven of our misery, hold out heaven as a treat, motivation.. "keep working/suffering"
The Eolian Harp (Pg. 426-28)
S. T. Coleridge - conversational poem: clear auditor: fiance, Sarah Fricker, question asked in poem and resolved at end (1795; 1796).
*Poem written before he married Sarah, but they were to be married soon.
*First few lines, looking out at nature, giving a very idealistic view/opinion.
*God created all things, what if everything alive is.. antheism.
*Humility - walk humbly with God, changes tone.
*only appropriate way to approach God is on your knees.
Frost at Midnight (Pg.464-66)
S. T. Coleridge - Everyone has gone to sleep in cottage, his son/infant is sleeping quietly (Feb 1798; 1798).
*Setting silence at beginning - "The frost performs its secret ministry, unhelped by any wind."
*Silence is unnerving, sometimes deep though requires isolation.
*Wants to find meaning in the film/ash from the fire.
*The ash from fire takes him back to when he was a schoolboy looking at ash, he was so bored in school that he wanted to leave to relationships and nature outside.
*Talks to his son - HARTLEY, want to raise him outside the city.
*God is the teacher who uses nature.
Dejection: An Ode (Pg.466-69)
S. T. Coleridge - Human feelings & nature are separate, questioning the romantic project, the approach to nature in a positive/romanticized way (Apr. 4, 1802; 1802).
*Wants a storm to come, nature of depression drives him inward, not thereputic to share,not even pang of feeling. Questions whether the storm will be able to start a fire within him
*Complaining about his mood to off limit love (Sarah Hutchinson - not his wife, sara fricker.)
*Emotions can only emerge from within, not from nature. Nature doesn't always make you feel better or optimistic, often times an eternal change is need
*expresses problems within himself that cannot be fixed by nature
*Storm comes, raging outside & he never even notices that the storm has been there and didn't affect him at all.
*He has not obtained the state that he is wishing for himself or his love, he wishes Sara Hutchinson well since he cannot have it.
Preface to Lyrical Ballads (Pg.262-74)
William Wordsworth -
*artificial upperclass - living in city, rural areas more at peace & themselves, 1 with the world as it is.
*Both thought & feeling are intertwined.
*Our thoughts are created by emotion.
*Likes to imagine what it would be like to be someone else in different situations.
*Best poetry is common, everyday language.
*British citizens have dull minds, not reflective, uniformity of plays in the 19th c. don't have substinence only special effects - not thoughtful, just want to be entertained. People all move to cities and get same jobs and become very bored, no opportunity for creativity.
*Nothing really happens in his poems, just how one feels & what he is thinking which leads to small important actions.
*What is a poet/What is good poetry.?
Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey (Pg.258-62)
*Starts in solitude and moves to community, in end he can be alone but it reminds him of everyone else.
*Beginning - much time has passed since he has been to Tintern Abbey.
*Seeking solitude, isolation, absence of sounds of industry & every day life in the city.
*Nature is all good & has a moral influence, makes us better people. Life is hard, pain/anxiety/depression, nature helps soothe and provide answers.
*Idea to create new memories to recall in the future, relaxation - recall pleasant images that have been recorded in this poem.
*Child - no thought/meditation/reflection, teen years - aching joys and pain in love, Things have changed as an adult but not for better or for worse. He now interacts with nature differently, but equally beneficial.
*Not passive w/nature, he actually interacts with it and it changes what he perceives, we interact with what we see and hear.
*Nature helps create what he becomes has a moral individual.
*Talking to his sister, wants to help her create pleasant memories of him and nature to recall in the future or in times of neg. emotions.
*Worshipper of Nature - retracts statement many years later.
The Tables Turned (Pg.251-52)
William Wordsworth - We should learn from nature, not from books - more wisdom in a birds song than from a book. When you analyze something too much you lose its life essence-pulse is diminished.
W. Wordsworth, what is a poet?
1. In touch with emotional side.
2. Understands human nature.
3. has imagination.
4. creating emotions.
5. facility of language.
6. Makes reader feel good, brings pleasure.
W. Wordsworth, Good Poetry?
--Self reflection can be painful, poetry creates inward looking.---
1. music of harmonious meter.
2. Sense of difficulty overcome, resolve, accomplishment.
3. Blind Association of Pleasure, enjoy similar poems.
4. Language resembles that of real life.
letter to Benjamin Bailey (Bot 940)
J . Keats - What the imagination sees as beauty must be true (ode of a grecian urn) there is something about beautiful things that are true.... but then what is true?
*Beauty if often located in the female body for Keats and also in human nature and art, they bring pleasure and that is truth as he knows it
*top 941 - oh for a lot of sensations rather than thoughts (paiter-renaissance, oscar wilde also shared same opinion)
*Once Keats died, he was very influential towards Paiter, Yates at end of century, and Oscar Wilde
Ode to a Nightingale
J . Keats - experience of loss from mom/family
*Identifies w/bird b/c bird is like himself, a creator of music/song
*Start to feel/taste what he feels like/is describing
*He does not want to stay where he is, he wants to sail away with nightingale to escape reality
*Birds don't deal with same pains as humans
*Thinking of our own situation/relationships brings despair
*beauty fades.. tragic.
*Desire has faded, it's taking back seat to pain for his loss.
*Bird is immortal bc it is not distinguishable from all other nightingales as a species, no family relationships
*forlorn, ringbell, disrupts his dream/vision/bird.. back to reality
*imagination through art is more tangible than reality
Ode on a Grecian Urn
J . Keats - bride without virginity taken
*urn may only exist in Keats Mind
*visual art is better than poetry
*ecstasy will never fade, will be with you forever.
*beauty is thing to value
*desire will never face, her beauty will never fade. once we have something we begin to lose value, we desire things out of our reach.
*melodies will never like the normal musician
painting, energy used, changing girl, sensual delights, what would happen if he caught her
*urn captures human emotion, humans at best/most passionate/most appreciative of beauty - sometimes looks like sickness
*okay that own is empty, everyone is missing, is not searching towards that type of truth
*some arts make u stop thinking analytically, sometimes you just want to cherish it
beautiful things on urn/he sees truth and experiences.
letter to G. & T. Keats
J . Keats - Negative Capability - willingness to be okay with mystery, fine being okay without a definite answer, indefinite endings.
*ex. eve of saint agnes - do we trust poor ferough and his actions, ending with death and disturbed dreams of other characters, we question whether we should be happy or not.
*Also Keats is not interested in traditional forms of religion. He is not curious in absolute truth - he doesn't spend his life seeking answers to the big questions like Coleridge (Coleridge always wanted to know more and always wanted an absolute truth especially regarding religion.)
letter to R. Woodhouse
J . Keats - What makes a good poet? A poets chameleon like qualities, the ability to enter into the persona/experience of anyone and anything (women, men, heros, villians, animals...) ability to constantly move from one persona to another
*Poet has no identity, he is constantly filling some other body - faults woodsworth for being egotistical and always writing about himself.
The Eve of St. Agnes
J . Keats - There is a legend that if a woman fasts and goes to bed thinking about her lover on the Eve of Saint Agnes that there will be some truth about her lover.
*When he wakes up the woman in the middle of her night, stanza35, at first she just sees her dream, then she see him - her opinion of him is worse than her real perception of him and she wants to see him as she does in her dream.
*With assistance from her maid, which Forthorough threatens/blackmails into letting him into Madeline's room. First he waits, hides in his closet, watches her undress and go to sleep. Then sets fruit and wakes her. He then convinces her that all is well, they run off together then bad things happen to others at the end. Will they even survive through the cold storm? He promises her a place to be together.
Keats constantly throwing in details that things are not as they appear.
*897 - they glide like phantoms (not even like humans at this point), because he ends the poem ends the way he leaves the poem REQUIRES us to question the mans motives
Madeline's father as well as other guests all have nightmares, her nanny/maid who is in charge of watching over her dies. Very ominous ending.
Negative capability in action.
Dover Beach (Pg 1368-69)
M . Arnold - a lover of the greeks
*probably talking to wife/bride
*slight turn at "only" line 7
*sound - provides author with opportunity to think about meaning, gets idea/sound of tide.
*idea from sound, there was a time when humanity was like an island, faith supported and gave reason to life. this faith is now receding, no longer offering structure & support, retreating to night wind.
*not angry at church or humanity, depressed bc he doesn't know what will replace faith in the world.
*internal tension: love/romance an alternate? But there is no love in this world..
*Poem ends with a vision of chaos, world falling to pieces, no replacement suggested for faith.
The Cry of the Children, pp.1079-82
E . B. Browning - (1843).
*children think death is happier than life.. they should not relate to the intense sorrow that old people experience - they are forced to grow old before their time, why do they feel this way?
*Browning wants to evoke an apathetic response from the audience.
*children can no longer recognize a loving God, notions of god have been corrupted bc they have never experienced loving or caring. why would god hear their pitiful prayer w/all the noise. they don't understand the idea of God and that he hears all. If children don't believe in kindness why would they believe god exists?
*So much work - have become a cog in the machine
*directed to religious hypocrites, BRITISH, audience is not practicing what they preach - all words no action
My Last Duchess pp.1255-56
R . Browning
*Wants to entirely control wife's emotional state, only wants her to be happy when she is around him.
*He shouldn't have to/doesn't want to tell her how he feels
*At end entirely controls her beauty (she is dead and he has her portrait to show others as he pleases)
*Wants to remarry to a wealthy woman for the dowry
Fra Lippo Lippi (Pg 1271-80)
R . Browning
*creates a scoundrel, a priest in the red light district wandering after loose women in the midnight hours
*he makes us question our judgement of Fra Lippo Lippi, Fra Lippo Lippi was offered a roof over his head and free food in return for giving up women/family as young child who hadn't even gone through puberty
becomes a brilliant artist by using his own weaknesses as a child
*He grabbed scraps of food that were dropped by people in passing & drippings of wax, had to be able to read people and see what they were thinking of him by looking at their faces, see how they would react to what he needed to do. From this he becomes a store house of peoples faces in his head
*He starts drawing these faces everywhere, on rhyme books, almost got kicked out but prior decides they could use him, wanted to help the guy/benefit from him - Fra Lippo Lippi starts painting for the church and starts creating realistic images of people which was not done during his time. He wants to capture the look of flesh and the shape of the body
*this is a problem to the prior, he wants the pictures to be able to lead people to christ, only paint enough to give people the idea and help them to imagine what the people actually look like. He thinks Fra Lippo Lippi should be trying to pain the soul not the flesh - although he doesn't know what exactly he is asking for
Fra Lippo Lippi says we are human and fleshly, we have different morphologies, he enjoys beauty and likes to capture others beauty which can help people to realize god and see what beauty he has created. He sees the body and the soul inexplicably connected - a soul can be seen in the beauty of human being
*When you look at a beautiful face, it is impossible to go further - talking about the prior's niece. A man will lust over a beautiful woman no matter what.
*If you capture a beautiful body that god has put into the world, you are thankful towards god and your soul relates to god
The Lady of Shalott*
A . Tennyson, Tennyson. A poem based loosely on an Arthurian tale in which Elaine of Astolat, a maiden who falls in love with Lancelot, but dies of grief when he cannot return her love. "On either side the river lie/Long fields of barley and rye..."
-lilies were surrounding the island
-people only know of the lady through her voice
-she is seeing a reflection of life but she can't full see it, what she sees in the mirror she portrays in the tapestry - there's a tension over whether she is cursed after lancelot rides by
-she dies before she gets to camelot
-lancelot see her dead and said she's pretty and deserves grace
-poetry was intensely criticized, he decided not to publish for 10 yrs.
-tennyson replaced wordsworth as poet loriet when he died
-parabolic drift - the poem leans towards a parable w/o overly stating it
The Stones of Venice
J . Ruskin
Questioning negative valence of term gothic
freedom in gothic that we don't see in South, repetition, symmetry
allows freedom, ornamentation
Gothic originated in north, now can see in Venice
Architecture (Gothic) is more valuable than greeks/roman/raphael/Leonardo's drive for perfection bc has given working class freedom to follow their impulses
don't enjoy their work bc do the same thing, criticizes bead making/gives palsy
Servile - a kind of slavery of the imagination, criticized greeks, renaissance as being too slavish, not allowing variability
imperfection is real/honest - it reminds us that we are imperfect
servile/slavish/english furniture - constitutional - revolutionary freedom
Studies in the History of the Renaissance
W . Pater
Pater high values renaissance
-vampire/broad life experience/sinister smile
-not interested in art that tries to make us more moral, that improves our character
-pleasure is the goal
-art critic encourage reader to experience many types of art & find what they enjoy
-After mona lisa section - not forming habits but forever testing new ideas & sensations, everything is new we should be wide eyes so that we can see it as new and exciting
-each person is isolated by their own perceptions
-there are limits in what we can convey to others.
Madonna, Saint & Child - triangle
He paints the same kind of thing over and over and over again, doesn't get to use creativity, what he is c
Ignotus has created a life for himself where he doesn't have freedom, he says he has the skill to do more, but chose the path he is on for a few reasons,
It frightens him, had he become extremely famous he might begin to live on the praise of other people and he might end up needing the praise which will separate himself from God.
It would be incorrect for him to sell himself, if he put himself in his work & sold it, others would be judging himself and his work on a wall in someone's house without even knowing what they are talking about, he wants to preserve himself.
Entire poem is a defense of why he he chose the course of action he has chosen, but he contests too much, it is like he is trying to convince himself of what he is saying. Also, is he as good as he says he is.
G . M. Hopkins
simile/analogy/comparison - explicitly/clearly comparing 2 things.. like, as ...grandeur of god charged like shining from shook foil, like the ooze of oile crushed, being stepped on.
lines1-4 god's greatness is everywhere, question presented at end of line 4, why do people not respond to god's sovereignty - why do men then now not reck his rod.
-metonymy: something associated for another thing stands in for another thing ex: the crown (means queen/king not actual crown)
-tread-creat oil, then continue treading and forget what was once there - tread into dirt, distinctive qualities of oil are no longer as evident, the smell is no longer there.
8-being shod, added an extra lager between us and god, further removed
-lines 1-8 has a downward trajectory, gets more and more negative & depressing
-9: for all this nature is never spent, nature never runs out of beauty, always brings new life.
-freshness - generally a noun, being used as an adjective/a modifier.. ex of grammar play
-went (away) - ellipsis, dark/sleep/death.. then return of life
-very large dove/bird has spread it's arms and covered earth
-alliteration: bent, broods, breast.. bright
Brood: bird pulling in her eggs for protection. negative emotion, world is not perfect, holy spirit is watching over.. has two different meanings
As Kingfishers Catch Fire
G . M. Hopkins - clutters the poem with many things that don't go together, trying to identify how one experiences instress
Kingfisher - a bird, long beak, crest, red breast
-as kingfishers catch fire, red breast across sky.. look like fire
-inscape: unique pattern or design of each living thing
instress: correctly apprehend beauty then we can relate/connect with god who created it "act of instress" an inevitable response to inscape
-there is a god , everything was created by god and if we accurately perceive nature we can be connected to god
-kinetic verbs/active.. catch/draw/tumbled/ring
-starts with analogies before reader knows what he is identifying
-1-4lines, similes of things in the world then enact what they do. inscape-everything does one unique thing ONLY
-"mortal" limited life span
-animate and inanimate objects put under the same umbrella
-we are our behavior.. the way we act is our identity
-odd syntax: as tumbled over rim in roundy wells.. stones ring rather than stones ring when tumbled over rim in rounded wells
-wells/bells - rhyming
-stones - privileged spot in line 3 draws attention to stones, line 2 is all about action of stones
-each hung bells, bow swing. parallel with format in previous verses
-grammar play - selves - goes itself, what we actually do on a daily basis is what defines us, not what we say
-11: acts in gods eye what in gods eye he is - created in image of god, act like god, jesus showed us what he is, church - body, christ-head, we are expected to act christ like
-Sprung rhythm - a kind of poem that is not organized by # of feet or beats per line, lines are united by # of accents per line (syllables) a foot is 2 syllables
G . M. Hopkins KEY IDEA IS STRUGGLE, WHERE DOES HE LAY WITH GOD., beginning - no, I will not give into despair - middle, but.. - end, why? - very, very end, confusion.. hard to follow
metonmyo-kissing the rod (hit over head, out of reach.. not helpful), then a hand (approachable.. hand of compassion/help) something approachable.
What is god relative to himself? does he care? does he want to destroy him? Hand...
-some people feast/thrive on depression, he will not, will not buy into despair
-unexpected clarity, wants to see the light - have day come
-double negative not choose not ot be, will not commit suicide
-god - aggressor - slamming hopkins, has stepped on him
-sitting under storm, god is making it worse, not campanion
-chaff/grain - separate gross/unvaluable from that that is
-tensions, did he give all of himself to god "rod"? or was it hand? compassion/friendship, lapping strength like dog & water -stealing joy
-constantly shifting directions, organic unity, coleridge's unity form of poem matches content
Thou art indeed just, Lord
G . M. Hopkins
-affirmation.. god is just but why are efforts still broken?
-drunkard/thralls of lust - some are thriving more than he is even though he has given his life to god.
-he tries like a bird to build something but fails, he need to grow, wants god to use his power to improve the situation.
In an Artist's Studio
-Poem published long after death of her brother in order to not hurt his feelings, she is criticizing how he treated his wife/fiance
-Elizabeth Civil, finds a beautiful, kind, energetic woman
-used fiance as model w/various outfits.. same meaning on each canvas
-"feeds upon on her face" vampiric, unhealthy & unnatural
-troubled relationship-very many other relationships with artist.. she commit suicide 2 years after marriage, was engaged to Cristina's brother for 10 years.
The Defence of Guenevere
Doesn't use bribery in her defense.. uses her beauty/body, her relationship with God, tears/sadness and threats
She was mad with BEAUTY
She chooses Blue...??
-Guinevere & Launcelot = affair.
-like fra lippo lippi she is trying to defend & explain herself but she is actually trying to buy time until launcelot can come rescue her, which he does at the end of the poem.
-beginning: acting, like they have crippled her, uses her body to make them pity her.
-hypothetical situation victimized: arbitraty decision, she didn't know right form worng at first with lancelot, two cloths, one goes to heaven/one goes to hell, no way to know,,,, When lancelot is around she can't think clearly
-she cries, narrator uses words brave, glorious to describe her.
-Does Arthur treat her how he should? No sex/love/affection
-Lancelot acting as connection between her and god, w/o this love she wouldn't love anything. Using God as an excuse
-Half mad with beauty, not fully aware or thinking straight... so aware of her beauty she couldn't think straight.
-her hand, touched bird, held up to sky, with wind loose her head
-they kissed but kept hands behind back to keep more from happening
-she is wealthy = honest
-asks men to look at her chest, throat.. how she is breathing/how she speaks... detailed sexuality and asks if she can be considered vile/evil while being so beautiful
-last strategy - found lancelot in her bedroom.. one less than three bc nothing wrong with 3.. really there was two
The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock**
T . S. Eliot
Michaelangelo - sistine chapel, statue of david - he is nude and in bible before fighting..
Meaning - why the women are thinking about michaelangelo in this poem - David is the perfect body, Michaelangelo can represent a standard of masculinity that he cannot measure up to. He is tortured by a lack of self confidence.
There is a description of fog.. it appears to be a cat... "rubs back upon window panes, rubs its muzzle on the window-panes, liked its tongue into the corners of the evening.. slipped by the terrace, made a sudden leap.. curled once about the house, and fell asleep."
Narrator talks about a bald spot in the middle of his hair... He is imagining the way women will respond to his growing bald.
To his Coy Mistress by Andrew Marvell. If time didn't matter, you could take as long as you would like with the courtship, not having sex... but we are running out of time to be together intimately.. if you don't want to have me in you you will have worms in you after you are dead. Only mentions love once at the beginning of the poem.
He feels like the eyes of women judge and pierce him.
Crab at the ocean's bottom... metaphor narrator uses. - so that he can walk backwards to prevent himself from aging... he no longer can compete for a woman and this scares him. Crabs - eternal life without eternal beauty.. Crabs aging process isn't as visible as a humans.. Armor to withstand women's piercing eyes.. Crabs are bottom feeders, always getting leftovers..
"That is not what I meant at all, That is not it, at all." Narrator imagines a woman saying this..
Narrator pretends he is a minor, bit player, perhaps a member of a crowd or a court fool... He does not seem himself as a leader but as a follower..
Says he is not Prince Hamlet
Narrator sees himself being seduced by Mermaids.. rolls his pants as he grows old.. wonders how he will part his hair, should he eat a peach? He sees the mermaids and doesn't think they will pay any attention to him... suddenly he imagines himself in the water at the bottom being decorated by mermaids with red and brown seaweed.. Then voices wake "us" and then they drown..
Who is the other person(s) he refers to with us/we.. men/or people in similar situations to him.. unlucky in love/aging, different versions of himself at different ages.
Do I dare disturb the universe... to step out of passivity and into the flow of relationships would be ENTIRELY out of his character..
He thinks he knows how all women are like... but it is more of a reason to not have to put himself out there.. he says he can predict how they will react/respond to him so why try? Says he knows the eyes of them all.. pinned and wriggled him to the wall.. He has known the arms already... perfume from a dress...
Tradition and the Individual Talent
T . S. Eliot
The only way of expressing emotion in the form of art is by finding an "objective correlative"; in other words, a set of objects, a situation, a chain of events which shall be the formula of that particular emotion; such that when the external facts, which must terminate in sensory experience, are given, the emotion is immediately evoked.
Modernists tried to remove themselves from the Victorian.
Mythic Method - take myths from western culture and realize them in a new way in his own poems in the modern period/style.
Eliot is deferential to the past, he doesn't think you can ignore it or not include it. He thinks you must bring parts of the past into his currents works.
The Hollow Men**
T . S. Eliot
We are all like scare crows - we are hollow at our core. A very depressing poem
Death immediately at the beginning of the poem.
He describes himself and his peers as figures of men,
"whisper together" - attempt to create community, realization that is not met - they do not successfully create either.
Image - wind blown through dry grass, rats walking on broken glass -
Shape without form, shade without colour, paralysed force, gesture without motion
all have a lot of tension, don't make sense - hard to realize. Tension is suppose to make us feel uncomfortable when we realize these concepts don't go together
Those who pass on into next life remember them in static, not in motion
When we die we move onto another kingdom where the monarch is death... there is no difference between this life and the next - both are rule by death
desire for physical contact, someone to respond with passion and love
word - alone - in line 47 resonates.
Synecsymecdoche - a part that represents the whole. The eyes start to represent a woman and women as a whole.
very little punctuation, does not allow you pause in between phrases, one emotion leads directly into the next
impotence - perhaps sexual but not entirely, also inability to create something/an idea that will draw a breath. Something stopping our dreams from being realized and shared with others.
For thine is the kingdom - as much of a statement as a questions. Is there a god? If so, is there an afterlife?..
Emotional place, no hope, no promise of relationship - sees this current life as the same as the afterlife and he sees the afterlife as a place of death leaving no hope or optimism.
Journey of the Magi**
T . S. Eliot
Beginning tells how difficult the journey is - not pleasant/fun, very cold & therefore uncomfortable
There were times they regretted leaving and going on this journey.
Take these physical manifestations and turn them into something emotional. Journey is very uncomfortable and requires great sacrifice.
stanza 2 leads into what they are heading for, a temperate valley where the weather changes,
Sees three trees (Jesus and 2 criminals?) and an old white horse galloping away
Satisfactory - satisfied his spiritual quest
Third section - Long ago, he would do it again
NOTE lines 35 & 36 - where they left all that way for birth or death?
This birth was all about death, Jesus came into the world to die.
There absolutely was a birth
Narrator has seen both birth and death but didn't realize that the were the same thing
They return to their kingdoms but are no longer at ease there, their lives are difficult to live, there is an unease that dominates their life. There is more difficulty living on the surface of life than they felt before. New experience of Jesus is not consistent with the way their culture is living.
Death of Jesus impacts their sense of their own morality.
Maybe death was a way to go back to Jesus and the beauty of it
Hollow Men published first in 1925 and Journey of the Magi in 1927, very different views on life and death at two different points in his life.
The Horse Dealer's Daughter
D . H. Lawrence
Mabel's Gaze always made Jack Ferguson feel uncomfortable, unsettling his superficial ease. Her steady, dangerous eyes..
Mabel's gaze makes Jack Ferguson feel reinvigorated and rejuvenated when he spots her in the graveyard.
Ferguson fears the look of doubt in Mabel's eyes because he is afraid she will kill herself again.
He doesn't want to love her but he does.
The kiss - he doesn't want to look her because he feels uncomfortable with the way she looks at him. Shows that the
Ferguson does not relate with his emotions, he says he hates his job but he lives vicariously through who he works for - the contact with the rough, strongly feeling middle class excites emotions in him.
characters moving towards sexual gratification.
Sexual desire on Ferguson's part.
kissing his knees as if unaware of anything.. she is not aware of her sexuality
self-deprecating in an appealing way
She is not accustomed to being treated with respect, her brothers treated her horribly and would rather have her on the streets than take her in with them.
ecstasy in becoming nearer to her fulfillment, feels very close to her mother which brings her closer to death.
modifiers used often in the text - each word has a lot of weight.
men are dumb, stupid and in-harnessed much like the horses - description from Fergusson
Water - baptism, new positive view of the relationship that is forming. Adjustment of feelings and emotions.
mindless, why should she? why should she answer to anyone? this is a choice, to not look too deeply into the circumstances of her life, to keep from being so depressed.
Glory of Women
S . Sassoon
-addressed to women who are not on front lines who are cheering men on
-wounded in a mentionable place, badge of hone for men who was injured and also for their women
-line 4: war=disgraceful and wrong, sassoon is not for war.
-you believe... means he doesn't
-women replacing mens jobs in factories or serving a limited function
-women like to hear war stories, they don't understand the reality
-you praise at a distance but aren't actually there,
-"retire" run away, flee.. cowards under fire, run instead of braving the shells coming at them
-12-end of poem is directed at German mothers/women, SWITCH OF AUDIENCE
-dead soldier, time delay, women @ home don't know yet, body not being treated
-women are removed, horrible in mind of narrator, women make this beautiful in their own mind
Musée des Beaux Arts**
W . H. Auden
-position of suffering relative to human experience
-for the miraculous birth, a reference to christ
-martyrdom -crucifixion of christ
-humans might recognize someone else's suffering but we choose to turn a blind eye, we don't like to sympathize
-suffering becomes beautiful, the ignorance is beautiful
-icarus dying, women not washing laundry (From quiz)
-They were not wrong about suffering
Leda and the Swan
W . B. Yeats
-1st Stanza - very violent, lena trying to push him away, forced to feel his heart beat.. intimacy, shudders=orgasm, ecstasy - leads to trojan war from birth of helen
-being so caught up... to end, he gets kids out of this, what does she get? outrageous, how can she get anything from being raped? Also, an encounter between human & divine, can she see something in future from lying so close to him/divine
To his coy mistress - Marvel
Complaining about a woman who won't step up and have sex with him.
Trying to convince woman that her virginity will be turned to dust if she doesn't follow him to the bedroom.
T.S Eliot refers to this poem..
T.S Eliot;s poem is about a guy who can't get himself to step forward and take a risk.