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A trained therapist who uses psychological techniques to assist someone to overcome excessive anxiety would generally
be best described as a

psychotherapist

Schizophrenia is a disorder that is MOST likely to be treated with

biomedical therapies

Sigmund Freud introduced a form of psychotherapy known as

psychoanalysis

Psychoanalytic techniques are designed primarily to help patients

become aware of their repressed conflicts and impulses.

Psychoanalytic interpretation is designed to promote

insight

Which form of therapy is most likely to be described as expensive and time-consuming?

psychoanalysis

Humanistic therapists are most likely to

emphasize the importance of self-awareness for psychological adjustment

Which approach emphasizes the importance of providing patients with feelings of unconditional positive regard?

client-centered therapy

Client-centered therapists are most likely to

restate and seek further clarification of what clients say during the course of therapy

Repeatedly introducing people to things they fear and avoid is most characteristic of

exposure therapies

Systematic desensitization involves the use of

progressive relaxation

Virtual reality exposure therapy is most likely to prove effective in the treatment of

phobias

To treat nail biting, one can paint a patient's fingernails with a nasty-tasting nail polish. This procedure best illustrates

aversive conditioning

In which operant conditioning procedure are positive reinforcers given for desired behaviors?

a token economy

Mr. Quinones, a fifth-grade teacher, gives a blue plastic star to each student who achieves a high score on a math or
spelling test. At the end of the semester, students can exchange their stars for prizes. Mr. Quinones' strategy illustrates
an application of

operant conditioning

Teaching people to stop blaming themselves for failures and negative circumstances beyond their control is of most
direct concern to ________ therapists

cognitive

Natasha claimed that her failure to get A's in all her courses meant she was incompetent. Her therapist calmly
challenged this assertion, commenting, "By your mental calculations, well over 90 percent of all students are
incompetent!" The therapist's response was most typical of a ________ therapist.

cognitive

Cognitive therapists are most likely to emphasize that emotional disturbances result from

self-blaming and overgeneralized explanations of bad events.

The belief that no person is an island is the fundamental assumption of

family therapy

Research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy indicates that

clients are generally satisfied with the effectiveness of therapy.

Clients' perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy are often misleading because clients

often need to convince themselves that they didn't waste their money on therapy

Therapists' perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy are likely to be misleading because

clients typically emphasize their problems at the start of therapy and their well-being at the end of therapy

Which phenomenon refers to the tendency for extraordinary or unusual events to be followed by more ordinary events?

the placebo effect

Students who receive unusually low scores on their first psychology test can reasonably anticipate ________ scores on their second psychology test

somewhat higher

The best psychotherapy outcome studies are randomized clinical trials comparing treatment groups with ________
groups

control

Which of the following is a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different studies?

meta-analysis

Statistical summaries of psychotherapy outcome studies indicate that

no single form of therapy proves consistently superior to the others

Increasingly, insurer and government support for mental health services requires

evidence-based practice

Which of the following has been demonstrated to provide relief for those who suffer from seasonal affective disorder?

light exposure therapy

Three benefits attributed to all psychotherapies are

hope, a new perspective, and a caring relationship

Because she mistakenly thought that completing a diagnostic test was a therapeutic treatment for her anxiety disorder,
Mrs. Shyam felt considerable relief for several weeks following the test. Mrs. Shyam's reaction best illustrates

the placebo effect

Immigrants from Asia would most likely experience difficulty as clients of American psychotherapists who emphasize
the value of

individualism

Which therapeutic specialists are most likely to have received a Ph.D. degree in psychology?

clinical psychologists

A physician who specializes in the treatment of psychological disorders is called a

psychiatrist

Although Dr. Anderson uses systematic desensitization for the treatment of phobias, he prescribes antianxiety drugs as
well. It is most likely that Dr. Anderson is a

psychiatrist

The double-blind technique involves

a procedure in which neither patients nor health care staff know whether a given patient is receiving a drug or a
placebo.

Antipsychotic drugs have proved helpful in the treatment of

schizophrenia

Which of the following treatments is most likely to be used only with severely depressed patients?

drug therapy

Surgically cutting the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain is called

a lobotomy

Antidepressant drugs, a fresh perspective on his problems, and a strong therapeutic alliance all contributed to helping
David recover from a major depressive disorder. An integrated understanding of David's recovery process is best
provided by

a biopsychosocial approach

Aerobic exercise, adequate sleep, light exposure, and social engagement are important components of

therapeutic life-style change

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