Army Study Guide - Rifle Marksmanship M-16/M-4 (FM 3-22.9)

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What is the FM concerning Rifle Marksmanship with the M-16/A2 Rifle or M-4 Carbine?

FM 3-22.9

What is the first thing you you should do when handling a weapon?

Clear it.

Name the five phases in Basic Rifle Marksmanship.

- Preliminary Rifle Instruction
- Downrange Feedback
- Field Fire
- Advanced Rifle Marksmanship
- Advanced Optics, Laser and Iron Sights

What is the purpose of the Weaponeer?

The Weaponeer is capable of simulating all of he BRM live fire scenarios without firing rounds. Immediate feedback is available for critiquing the Soldier's application of the integrated act of firing while using the Weaponeer device to include misfire procedures.

What are the four fundamentals of marksmanship?

1. Steady position
2. Sight picture (proper aim)
3. Breathing
4. Trigger squeeze

During PMI, what are the only two positions taught?

1. Prone unsupported
2. Foxhole supported

What are the two basic elements of the sight picture?

1. Sight alignment
2. Placing of the aiming point

What does the acronym SPORTS stand for?

Slap
Pull
Observe
Release
Tap
Squeeze

What is remedial action?

Remedial action is the continuing effort to determine the cause for a stoppage and to try to clear a stoppage once it has been identified.

Describe the proper procedure for applying remedial action with the M16/A2.

1. Try to place the weapon on Safe.
2. Remove the magazine.
3. Lock the bolt to the rear.
4. Place the weapon on Safe, if not already done.

Describe the proper procedure for applying immediate action with the M16/A2.

1. Slap upward on the magazine.
2. Pull the charging handle to the rear.
3. Observe the chamber (if the weapon fails to eject, perform remedial action).
4. Release the charging handle.
5. Tap the forward assist to ensure bolt closure.
6. Squeeze the trigger.

Is SPORTS an Immediate or Remedial action?

Immediate

What is immediate action?

The quick application of a possible correction to fix a stoppage without troubleshooting the actual cause.

How many times should immediate action be applied?

Once. If the rifle still fails to fire, apply remedial action.

What is a malfunction?

The weapon ceasing to fire due to a stoppage resulting from mechanical failure.

Name the different categories of malfunctions of the M16/A2.

- Failure to feed, chamber, or lock.
- Failure to fire
- Failure to extract
- Failure to eject

What is a stoppage?

A stoppage is a failure of an automatic firearm to complete the cycle of operation.

How do you clear a stoppage?

Apply immediate or remedial action.

What is the definition of Maximum Effective Range?

Maximum Effective Range is the greatest distance at which a Soldier can be expected to deliver a target hit.

What does CLP stand for?

- Cleaner: it dissolves residue and carbon
- Lubricant: it lays down a layer of Teflon as it dries to provide lubrication
- Preservative: it prevents rust from forming

Describe the M16/A2 rifle.

The M16/A2 rifle is a 5.56 mm, hand-held, shoulder-fired, magazine-fed, gas-operated, air-cooled, semi-automatic weapon with three-round burst.

What are the 7 types of ammunition that can be used with the M16/A2 rifle?

1. M193 - Ball
2. M196 - Trace
3. M199 - Dummy
4. M200 - Blank (Violet tip and 7 5. petal rose crimp)
5. M855 - Ball (Green Tip)
6. M856 - Tracer (Red Tip)
7. M862 - Short Range Training Ammunition (Plastic with a Blue Tip)

What are the 4 steps in order to mechanically zero the M16/A2?

1. Align the front sight post up or down until flush with the housing.
2. Adjust the elevation knob counterclockwise (as seen from above) until the rear sight assembly is flush with the carrying handle, and the 8/3 marking is aligned with the index line on the left side of the carrying handle.
3. Position the unmarked aperture is up, and adjust the windage to align the index mark on the 0-200 m aperture with the long center index line on the rear sign assembly.

What steps are required to battlesight zero the M16/A2.

1. Adjust the elevation knob counterclockwise (as seen from above) until the rear sight assembly is flush with the carrying handle, and the 8/3 marking is aligned with the index line on the left side of the carrying handle, then adjust one more click clockwise.
2. Position the unmarked aperture is up, and adjust the windage to align the index mark on the 0-200 m aperture with the long center index line on the rear sign assembly.

Describe the weights of the M16/A2 rifle?

- Without magazine and sling: 7.78 lbs
- With sling and a 20-round magazine: 8.48 lbs
- With sling and a 30-round magazine: 8.79 lbs

Describe the maximum effective rates of fire for the M16/A2.

- Semi: 45 rpm
- Burst: 90 rpm
- Sustained: 12-15 rpm

What is the muzzle velocity of the M16/A2?

3,100 feet per second

Describe the ranges for the M16/A2.

- Maximum range: 3,600 m
- Maximum effective range (point): 550 m
- Maximum effective range (area): 800 m

Describe the barrel rifling of the M16/A2.

1/7: One right hand twist every 7 inches.

What is the basic combat load of ammunition for the M16/A2?

210 rounds (seven 30 round magazines)

How much does the elevation knob adjusts the point of aim for the M16/A2 rifle?

300 to 800 meters

What is the overall length of the M16/A2?

39.63 inches

What are the 8 steps in the functioning of the M16/A2 rifle.

1. Feeding
2. Chambering
3. Locking
4. Firing
5. Unlocking
6. Extracting
7. Ejecting
8. Cocking

Describe the procedures for clearing the M16/A2 rifle.

- Point the muzzle in a designated SAFE DIRECTION. Attempt to place selector lever on SAFE. If weapon is not cocked, lever cannot be placed on SAFE.
- Remove the magazine by depressing the magazine catch button and pulling the magazine down.
- To lock bolt open,pull charging handle rearward. Press bottom of bolt catch and allow bolt to move forward until it engages bolt catch. Return charging handle to full forward position. If you have not done so before, place the selector lever on SAFE.
- Visually (not physically) inspect the receiver and chamber to ensure these areas contain no ammo.
- With the select or lever pointing toward SAFE, allow the bolt to go forward by pressing the upper portion of the bolt catch.
- Place the select or lever on SEMI and squeeze the trigger.
- Pull the charging handle fully rearward and release it, allowing the bolt to return to the full forward position.
- Place the select or lever on SAFE.
- Close the ejection port cover.

How do you perform a functions check on the M16/A2 rifle?

1. Place the selector lever on safe. If the selector switch will not go on safe, pull the charging handle to the rear and release. Place the selector lever on safe. Pull the trigger to the rear, the hammer should not fall.
2. Place the selector lever on semi. Pull the trigger to the rear and hold. The hammer should fall. While holding the trigger to the rear, pull the charging handle to the rear and release. Release the trigger and pull it to the rear again. The hammer should fall.
3. Place the selector lever on burst. Pull the charging handle to the rear and release. Pull the trigger to the rear and hold. The hammer should fall. While holding the trigger to the rear, pull the charging handle to the rear three times and release. Release the trigger and pull it to the rear again. The hammer should fall.

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