Chapter 3: Biochemistry

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29 terms

Organic compound

Primarily made of carbon atoms.

Functional group

Clusters of atoms.

Monomer

Smaller, simpler molecules that build carbon compounds.

Polymer

Molecule that consists of repeated, linked units.

Macromolecule

Large polymers.

Condensation reaction

Monomers link to form polymers through this chemical reaction.

Hydrolysis

Water is used to break down a polymer.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Energy is available to cells in the form of this compound that stores a large amount of energy in its overall structure.

Carbohydrate

Organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom.

Monosaccharide

A monomer of a carbohydrate.

Disaccharide

Two monosaccharides can combine in a condensation reaction to form this double sugar.

Polysaccharide

Complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides.

Protein

Organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

Amino acid

Proteins are formed from the linkage of these monomers.

Peptide bond

In a condensation reaction, the two amino acids form a covalent bond called this.

Polypeptide

Amino acids form these very long chains.

Enzyme

RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts.

Substrate

The reactant being catalyzed.

Active site

The enzyme's folds.

Lipid

Large, nonpolar organic molecules.

Fatty acid

Unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids.

Triglyceride

Composed of three molecules of fatty acid joined to one molecule of the alcohol glycerol.

Phospholipid

Have two, rather than three, fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol.

Wax

Type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain.

Steroid

Molecules that are composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them.

Nucleic acid

Large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

Contains information that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs its cell activities.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

Stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins.

Nucleotide

Made of three main components: a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a ring-shaped nitrogenous base.

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