Why is Beowulf considered an English poem even through its events take place in Scandinavia?
It is written in Old English
What was the main task of Christian missionaries in England?
To transfer the people's allegiance from their king to God
Why was the Book of Kells moved from Iona off the Scottish coast to Kells in Ireland?
.To protect it from Vikings threatening the Scottish coast
Why did Pope Leo III crown Charlemagne the first Holy Roman Emperor?
For Christianizing the people of his vast empire
In the Song of Roland, why are the Saracens able to ambush Roland's army?
Roland is betrayed by Ganelon
Why did Charlemagne insist upon a Christian education for his people?
To gain more favor from Pope Leo
Why was "Gothic" as applied to France's new architecture originally a derogatory term?
B) The Goths had destroyed classical traditions
Why was light vital to Saint Denis's design?
A) It is the physical and material manifestation of God
Why was Saint Denis not completed during Suger's lifetime?
C) Louis VII left for the Crusades and withdrew funding
Why were so many of the cathedrals called Notre Dame ("Our Lady")?
D) They were dedicated to the Virgin Mary, Queen of Heaven
What from Chartres Cathedral survived the devastating fire of 1194?
B) Mary's tunic and a window portraying her
Why did the Gothic cathedrals contain stained-glass programs?
A) To tell Bible stories to a mostly illiterate audience
Why is the Jesse tree a common stained-glass motif?
D) It establishes Mary's royal lineage from King David
Why did the Gothic cathedrals include flying buttresses?
B) To help spread out the weight of the vaults
What 150-year time period in Italy did nineteenth-century historians label the Renaissance?
B) Mid fourteenth to early sixteenth
What were the Renaissance humanists aiming to understand?
C) The nature of humanity and its relationship to the natural world
Why in 1401 did the Florentines sponsor a competition?
A) To choose a designer for the city's baptistery doors
Why are Ghiberti's doors known as the Gates of Paradise?
C) They open onto the paradiso, the area in front of the cathedral
Which is the only panel on the Baptistery doors to represent a single event?
D) Meeting of Solomon and Sheba
How did Brunelleschi construct his dome without temporary wooden scaffolding?
D) The dome's ribs function as support, so scaffolding is part of the design
Why probably did Brunelleschi use nine circles of horizontal ribs for the dome?
A) As the reverse of Dante's nine circles of hell
Why does Masaccio place the vanishing point in The Tribute Money behind Christ's head?
D) To identify Christ as the fresco's most important figure
What distinction does Donatello's David hold?
B) The first life-size freestanding male nude since antiquity
Why did Donatello depict his David as a young adolescent?
C) To symbolize Florence's youthful vitality and ability to conquer tyrants
Why were the Medici the most powerful family in Florence from 1418-1494?
...A) They were bankers to the papacy
Why did Cosimo de' Medici found the Platonic Academy in Florence?
C) To provide a place for the study and discussion of Plato's works
Why did Lorenzo de' Medici invite the young Michelangelo Buonarroti to live in his palace?
...B) Lorenzo recognized Michelangelo's artistic promise
Why did Lorenzo de' Medici prefer frottole sung in Italian, not Greek or Latin?
...A) Italian was the most beautiful of languages for music
According to Pico della Mirandola's Oration on the Dignity of Man, what great gift makes humans "the most fortunate of living things"?
C) Free will
Why did Piero Della Francesca paint Federigo de Montefeltro, duke of Urbino, in profile?
C) Federigo was missing an eye and part of his nose
What implicit lesson does Mantega's Camera Picta send to Ludovico Gonzaga, ruler of Mantua?
D) A ruler always is in the public eye
Why was Ludovico Sforza, duke of Milan, so interested in Leonardo da Vinci?
...A) Leonardo could design great machines of war for him
Why is Leonardo's Last Supper fresco in very bad shape today?
B) Leonardo painted dry plaster with oil, which flakes off
Why did the Florentines drive the Medici family from the city in 1494?
C) Piero de Medici formed an unpopular alliance with the French king
Why did Medici supporters hurl stones at Michelangelo's David as it was moved through the streets?
...D) They understood David's symbolism of the city standing up to tyrants
What is meant by terribilitá, a trademark of many of Michelangelo's works?
D) A terrifying and awesome force
When the papacy returned to Rome in 1420, why did the popes consider restoring the city their sacred duty?
A) To move visitors with extraordinary sights
Why did Michelangelo leave Florence for Rome in 1505?
B) Pope Julius II commanded him to come to Rome
Why did Michelangelo present Mary in his Pietà as young and beautiful instead of middle-aged?
D) To make her a timeless image of purity and chastity
Why did Pope Julius II wish to identify himself with Julius Caesar?
A) Like Caesar, he wanted to defeat the hated French
According to the ancient Roman Vitruvius, what standard should the ideal human body be eight times the size?
D) The head
What Leonardo work illustrates Vitruvius's ideas of human and geometric perfection of proportion and symmetry?
C) Vitruvian Man
Why did Bramante apply the Vitruvian circle inscribed with a square to his church designs?
To symbolize the perfection of God
Why were the people eager to buy the indulgences that Julius II sold to finance the St. Peter's project?
A) They wanted to shorten their stay in purgatory
Why did Michelangelo place the Drunkenness of Noah as the first scene the viewer sees upon entering the Sistine Chapel?
C) To remind them of their own frailty
Why did Michelangelo place the Separation of Light from Darkness at the Sistine Chapel's far end over the altar?
A) To symbolize the viewers' distance from creation's goodness and truth
Which of the following is not one of the four major areas of humanist learning that Julius II commissioned Raphael to paint on the Vatican's Stanza della Segnatura?
Why in the School of Athens does Aristotle direct his palm down?
C) To indicate that knowledge comes from study of the natural world
Upon whom did Raphael model his portrait of Heraclitus, the brooding, despairing philosopher?
Why did Machiavelli claim that it was better for a prince to be feared, not loved?
D) Fear is a stronger motivator
Why did Venetian artists begin using oil instead of tempera paint
C) Oil gave their work more luminosity and realistic details
Why is the Villa La Rotunda considered by many to be Andrea Palladio's masterpiece?
A) Its design is perfectly symmetrical
According to the chapter's "Continuity and Change" section, why did Titian become the most sought-after painter in Europe?
C) His portraits revealed the subjects' character and personality
Why did Siena experience population growth after 1125?
A) Its free commune status offered freedom from feudalism
Why were Siena's guilds able to rise to such levels of power?
A) Siena was an important manufacturing city
Why by the end of the fourteenth century did Florence become an important banking city?
C) The Pope conferred Siena's papal banking privileges on Florence
Why is the Virgin Mary's crown in Simone Martini's Maestrá significant?
A) It establishes her as both a sacred and a secular queen
In the Arena Chapel frescoes, what is Giotto the first artist since antiquity to depict?
A) People from behind
What is an advantage of the buon fresco (paint on wet plaster) technique?
C) The paint becomes part of the wall
Why does Dante place Judas, Brutus, and Cassius in the lowest level of his hell?
B) They were traitors
Why does Virgil guide Dante through Hell and Purgatory?
B) Virgil represented the embodiment of reason
Why did Christine de Pizan become the first female professional writer in European history?
A) A widow, she needed to support her family
Why were England and France fighting in the Hundred Years' War?
C) England wanted to claim Normandy from the French
According to the chapter's "Continuity and Change" section, what was a positive effect of the bubonic plague?
B) Per capita wealth increased
Why did Bruges become the financial capital of the North?
B) It was home to the Medici banking interests in the region
What physical attribute provided Bruges its status as an important trade center?
A) Its waterway that led from a lock on the North Sea
Why did Antwerp overtake Bruges in importance by the middle of the fifteenth century?
C) Bruges' harbor became blocked by silt
Unlike in Renaissance Italy, patronage of artists in the northern cities came from what source?
D) The merchant class
What is a particularly distinctive feature of Robert Campin's Mérode Altarpiece?
B) Its setting the Annunciation in an ordinary, middle-class Flemish home
Why did Flemish painters use oil instead of the tempera paint favored by the Italian Renaissance painters?
A) To create layers of paint that reflected light
In the Ghent Altarpiece, Jan van Eyck's depiction of Adam and Eve holds what distinction?
C) The largest painted nudes since antiquity
Who is reflected in the mirror in Jan van Eyck's double portrait Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife Giovanna Cenami?
D) Jan van Eyck
Characteristic of all northern painting of this time, Roger van der Weyden's Descent from the Cross displays tension between what?
D) Material well-being and spiritual narrative
What is an advantage of a polyptych over a diptych or a triptych?
C) A polyptych allowed for different arrangements
Hieronymus Bosch's famous triptych, the Garden of Earthly Delights, seems intended for what purpose?
A) To be a conversation piece
What question does Hieronymus Bosch's Garden of Earthly Delights seem to ask the viewers to ponder?
D) What might the world be like if the fall had never happened
In her Heptameron, Marguerite de Navarre expressed the northern pessimism and doubt about what institution?
C) The Church
Why were Morris dancing and its musical equivalent, the madrigal, so popular in the north?
D) They provided light-hearted and frivolous entertainment to all the classes
Heinrich Krämer's Malleus Maleficarum (The Hammer of Witches) set forth what attitude about women?
C) They were cunning and deceitful
In his landscape study The Large Turf, Albrecht Dürer was able to blend his northern interest in minute detail with what Italian Renaissance interest?
D) The phenomenon of the natural world
As discussed in the chapter's "Continuity and Change" section, what was the irony of monk and humanist scholar Desiderius Erasmus?
B) He opposed the Church's excesses yet loved beauty and art
Why did Holy Roman Emperor Charles V's own troops sack Rome in 1527?
C) He was unable to pay their wages
Why does Erasmus attack Church officials in his In Praise of Folly?
D) For selling pardons and indulgences
Why did Luther reject the Church's doctrine that good deeds and work led to salvation?
C) He believed that faith alone would provide salvation
What was at the heart of Luther's outrage at the Church's "salvation for sale"?
A) Class inequity and injustice
What did Luther claim gave him the right to post his 95 Theses on the Wittenberg church door?
B) Academic freedom
Why was Luther's translation of the New Testament into vernacular German so significant?
B) People no longer had to depend on the Church for biblical interpretation
Why did Luther rebel against Church mandate about celibacy for those in a religious vocation?
A) Faith equalized everyone, including the clergy
Why was Thomas Müntzer so critical of Martin Luther during the Peasant War?
B) Luther refused to support the peasants' rebellion
Why was mid-sixteenth century Geneva known as "a paradise for women"?
B) Geneva men who beat their wives were severely punished
Why in his later years did Luther claim that the Jews were a race rejected by God?
D) Luther accused Jews of denying Christ and crucifying him
What was the first major work Gutenberg published using his printing press?
D) The Forty-Two Line Bible
Why did the Roman Catholic Church condemn François Rabelais's Gargantua and Pantagruel?
B) For attacking medieval theology's dogmas and sacraments
Why did Michel de Montaigne's wealthy father send him away at birth to be raised by peasants?
C) So he would develop love and respect for common people
Why in 1545 did Pope Paul III call for the Council of Trent?
A) To reform the Church in response to Protestantism
Why did the Council of Trent insist on the use of religious imagery?
D) To move the faithful to adore and love God
How did Palestrina's Missa Papae Macellus conform to the Council of Trent's requirements?
A) The words are clear above the restrained music
What Michelangelo creation do some believe to be among the earliest Mannerist examples?
C) The Laurentian Library staircase
Why might Michelangelo in the Last Judgment have included his self-portrait on the flayed skin of St. Bartholomew?
B) Michelangelo felt martyred by papal commissions
How did Daniele da Volterra and others earn the name braghettoni ("breeches-painters")?
D) Painting draperies on the Last Judgment's nudes
Why in The Madonna with the Long Neck does Parmigianino paint Mary withdrawing from the Christ child?
B) She knows his tragic fate