AP Biology- Organic Chemistry

20 terms by frankie_v

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isomers

organic molecules that have identical molecular formulas but differing ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS

geometric isomers

organic molecules that vary in spacial arrangement

structural isomers

organic molecules that vary in covalent arrangement

sterioisomers or entantiomers

organic molecules that vary in spacial arrangment around asymetric carbon

macromolecules

large organic molecules; also called polymer which are made of repeating units called monomers

dehydration

removal of water molecule to connect monomers together to make polymers; also called condensation reaction

hydrolysis

addition of water molecule to disassemble polymers into monomers

carbohydrates

class of organic compounds composed of monosacharrides and disaccharides

monosaccharide

single sugar molecule

disaccharide

2 monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic linkage during dehydration

polysaccharide

polymer of monosaccharides; low solubility, not sweet

cellulose

long coiled polymer of glucose

chitin

polymer of glucose, each glucose having an amino group; very resistant to wear and digestion

lipids

class of organic compounds that tends to be insoluble in water; fats and oils

triglycerides

type of lipid (fat); containing backbone of glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids; long term energy story

saturated fat

fats containing single bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon chain

unsaturated

fats containing one or more double bond(s) between carbons in the hydrocarbon chain

steroids

type of lipid; skeleton of 4 fused carbon rings; cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen

waxes

type of lipid; long-chain fatty acid bonded to long-chain alcohol; high melting point, waterproof, resistant to degradation

protiens

organic molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides; different types/functions- enzymes, structure, carriers, signaling, contraction, antibodies

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