Ponce De Leon
New Amsterdam founded
Lord Baltimore established Maryland
Boston Tea Party
Battle of Saratoga
Battle of Yorktown
Britain and U.S. sign the Treaty
Balboa had crossed the Isthmus of Panama in 1513 and seen a vast ocean, which he named the South Sea.
Magellan sailed around the world in 1519-1522 and faced hardships such as scurvy, hunger, shipwreck, and even death. Magellan died trying to show off Spain's power to a chief named Lapu Lapu. Del Cano had to command the voyage home.
Da Gama, a Portuguese, in 1497 sailed successfully from Portugal, around Africa, and to India to fulfill Prince Henry's dream.
Prince Henry of Portugal
Prince Henry wanted to find out the truth of the seas to the west and to the south. Many people didn't want to go there in fear of shipwreck. He began to fit sea captains stories and created charts on their journeys, which led to a science of a ship's direction, location, etc. He developed a ship called a caravel, which is capable of sailing into the wind.
Cibola was a Zuni Indian town that was described by Friar Marcos as "larger than the city of Mexico" and said of Mexico "with much more fear than food" in comparison to Cibola. But Cibola was really just a pueblo, or small village, and Coronado found himself only enjoying the food there.
Cortes was the conqueror of the Aztecs and Mexico. He started in 1519. With the help of horses, which scared the Indians, Marina, which helped him communicate, Indians unhappy with the Aztecs, and the legend of Quetzacoatl, which helped him make the Aztecs surrender. It took him a year to defeat the Aztecs, and another year to take over their capitol, Tenochtitlan, and turn into Mexico City.
De Soto was looking for the Seven Golden Cities in the years 1539-1542. He started wondering around the southeast, discovering the Savannah and Mississippi River. He often treated the Indians harshly. He often turned them into slaves. He died of fever in 1542 after three fruitless years and was buried in the Mississippi River in fear that the Indians might find him.
Coronado was a man hungry for the Seven Golden Cities, so he went with many eager people after an advance party returned. But when he reached Cibola, which was said to be a rich city, it was only a small village, only good for food. He then went on to Quivira, he ran into the Grand Canyon and the Colorado River. But the only thing in Quivira was a bunch of grass huts. Coronado went back sad and weak from falling off his horse.
Tenochtitlan was the capitol of the Aztecs, in which Cortes visited and destroyed in 1519-1520.
Quetzacoatl was the Aztec ruler about 500 years ago that looked like Cortes. He sailed to the east, promising to return in the year of One Reed. Because Cortes was white and had a beard, Montezuma thought he was Quetzacoatl also because Cortes arrived in the year of One Reed and came from the east.
Atahualpa was the ruler of the Incas and paid Pizarro in gold and silver to let him free after he refused to become Christian and lost many of his followers, but was strangled after he paid 13,000 pounds of gold and 26,000 pounds of silver.
A German mapmaker named America after Vespucci.
Montezuma was the leader of the Aztecs that fell to Cortes and his army. He surrendered immediately when he thought Cortes was Quezacoatl, though you can't blame him for that.
De Las Casas
De Las Casas was a Spanish settler that was concerned of his Indian slaves. He wrote to the King about his tiresome Indians. Once, he described how a girl found a 35-pound gold nugget but didn't get a single bite of the pig her owners roasted. The King then stopped Indian slavery in 1542, then Indian conquests in 1550. This way, De Las Casas became known as Protector of the Indians.
The Natural Environment is the natural world around you, including the land, water, climate, etc.
A Caravel is a type of sail developed by the Portuguese that can sail smoothly in or with the wind. This way, sailors wouldn't be afraid to sail far from home because they wouldn't have trouble sailing against the wind.
Shamans were the priests, healers, answerers, explainers, and storytellers of Indian groups.
Flint was a common stone for tools in the Stone Age. It is very hard, AND easy to chip at the same time. Scrapers, knives, and spear points can be made from it.
La Salle attempted to sail the full Mississippi River in 1679. He also established Fort Crevecouer along the way. Though many problems delayed the attempt, he finally reached the basin in 1682 and claimed it for France.
Raleigh wanted an English settlement in North America. He visited Roanoke Island in 1584 and was warmly welcomed by the Indians. He claimed the land for England and called it Virginia. He sent a group of Englishmen to build a fort. However, the settlers expected the Indians to feed them, so Francis Drake stopped by and took the starving settlers home instead. Raleigh also sent another settlement in 1587, but mysteriously disappeared.
Hudson was an Englishman who worked for the Dutch in 1609. On that trip, he went through the Chesapeake Bay and went up the now called Hudson River. He traded with the Indians in present-day New York and claimed the land for the Dutch. In 1610 he was called upon again, except for the English. He discovered the Hudson Bay, but was left on a rowing boat with his son and seven crew members and was never heard of again.
Ponce De Leon
Ponce De Leon explored the Florida coast in 1513. He may have been looking for the fountain of youth, which would keep him from getting old. After hearing about Cortes, he tried again in 1521, only to meet furious Indians and killed by an arrow wound.
Cartier wanted to find a northwest passage to China. He met with the Hurons, an Indian tribe, and went back to France to teach the Chief's children French. He learned of the "road of Canada," or the St. Lawrence River. He sailed it, hoping to reach China. But rapids stopped him, and the Chief tricked him into going to an imaginary place. Unable to survive the winter and the Hurons against them, Cartier returned to France.
Joliet and Marquette
Joliet and Marquette led an amazing expedition in 1673 through Lake Michigan, Wisconsin River, and Mississippi River. They went as far as the Arkansas River. They traveled about 2,500 miles in four months.
A civilization is a way of life developed by agriculture. It has large cities, complex government, and highly developed arts and sciences.
A migration is a movement of people and animals. For example, the first Americans migrated from Asia for over 20,000 years.
Wigwams are round, bark-covered shelters that the Algonquian lived in.
Mound Builders were an Indian culture to build mounds that were miles long for burial places, temple bases, etc. They lived in towns and a surplus of food made it possible to specialize in building.
Cahokia was a major center for the Mississippi culture. It was near present-day St. Louis. It was once a big city...until people left for reasons we don't know.
Marco Polo traveled to China in 1271, and returned in 1299, pockets full of jewels. He wrote a book of his observations in China, like the gifts Great Khan got on his birthday or how people described Japan.
Leif Ericson & Bjorne Herjulfson
Ericson and Herjulfson were the ones who discovered Vinland. As a youngster, Ericson heard Hjreulfson's stories of Vinland and wanted to go there. His father was going to lead the expedition, but fell off his horse while riding to the ship. Ericson had to lead the who expedition all by himself.
Pizarro conquered the Incas of Peru. He collected over 10,000 pounds of gold from their leader after ambushing them.
Queen Isabella was the queen who supported Columbus in his voyage. She was well-read, intelligent, active, and deeply religious.
Bartholomew Diaz was a Portuguese captain who reached the southern tip of Africa in 1487.
The Giant Bison became extinct over 10,000 years ago
This may have happened because the climate changed. Or the hunters wiped them out. So the first Americans began gathering plants and smaller animals, or even shellfish if possible.
Cabot was an Italian who wanted to sail west, like Columbus. He discovered a rich fishing area he named the Grand Banks. He attempted another voyage, but was lost at sea. Fortunately, his Grand Banks weren't forgotten.
Drake was one of the pirates known as sea dogs. He was supposed to capture Spanish treasure. His first capture was on a Spanish mule train carrying gold and silver to Panama. After making a surprise attack. Drake and his men carried away all the gold, and leaving behind the silver because there was too much. On his second voyage, he went around the Strait of Magellan, captured a Spanish treasure ship, and sailed around the world and back to England. He was made a knight when he came home.
Longitude is the name for all the lines running up and down the globe.
The Equator is the main latitude of Earth. It passes right through the middle. It is technically zero degrees.
Samuel de Champlain
Champlain went to Canada in 1608 and establishes the first successful French settlement at Quebec. He was known for strong leadership, fairness, and politeness. He encouraged more exploration and settlement. He became known as the Father of New France.
The Prime Meridian is the main longitude. Passes vertically the center of the globe. It is also technically zero degrees.
The Spanish Armada was the fleet of warships gathered by the Spanish. It went out to invade England. However, with the help of a storm, the English defeated it at sea. This stopped Spanish's control of the New World.
John Smith was the man who "saved" Jamestown. He was captured before but escaped and led the Jamestown settlement. After making peace with the Powhatan Indians, he set out to perfect the settlement. He had help from the Indians, and did a lot of work himself. He declared that who ever didn't work and was able to couldn't eat.
Pocahontas was the chief's daughter that saved John Smith's life after he was sentenced to death. She brought food the settlement, and later became John's wife.
Powhatan was the chief of the Powhatan's who sentenced John Smith to death, but listened to Pocahontas' pleas and spared him.
John Rolfe experimented with tobacco he found and created an excellent way of drying tobacco and pleased many English merchants, for they were a popular product.
House of Burgesses
The House of Burgesses were the law-making assembly of Virginia. However, they didn't have total power. The colonists were still under English law. Luckily, the House of Burgesses gave them experience in self-government.
Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation were the first laws of America. This gave most of the power to the states. The states' representatives, that were elected, went to a congress that originally conducted the Revolutionary War.
The half moon is a phase in the moon cycle when it appears that half of the moon is shining.
Peter Stuyvesant was a governor of New Amsterdam. He had the nickname Peg Leg Peter because of his peg right leg. He was powerful and stubborn. The colonists weren't so happy in his rule. In return, when the English arrived. Stuyvesant had to surrender because the Dutch refused to fight.
Saratoga was the battle that won France's trust in 1777. It was basically the turning point in the American Revolution.
British general during the Battle of Saratoga.
British general that left Burgoyne alone at Saratoga to fight Gates and the Continental Army.
American general during the Battle of Saratoga.
The Oriskany Ambush was an ambush at Bloody Creak that ended when Herkimer was captured.
Washington's equivalent in the British army.
Myles Standish was a military man and a strong leader of the Pilgrims. He was responsible for any failures in the colonies' defense. He made firm and fair trades with the Indians to bring peace.
Puritans were settlers who came to America because they wanted to make a different Church of England that is more "pure." But they also came because of finance problems during inflation.
Fort Orange was one fort established by the Dutch on Albany. But in 1664, it was renamed Fort Albany by the English.
Delaware was the first state to ratify the Constitution. It was also the river George Washington crossed during the Battle of Trenton
Naval stores were places where planks, masts, etc. were kept. The ships built from these encouraged even more trade.
John Paul Jones
John Paul Jones was the navy commander who fought the British in the British waters. Once, he was demanded to surrender, but he simply said, "I have not yet begun to fight."
Nathan Hale was the first spy in the Continental Army. He was hanged after the British caught him in New York.
Battle of Trenton
The Battle of Trenton was a surprise attack on the Hessians on Christmas in 1776. After crossing the Delaware, the Americans found the Hessians celebrating Christmas. At daybreak, they attacked and over 900 Hessians surrendered, only 4 wounded Americans, and 2 frozen Americans.
Battle of Lexington
The Battle of Lexington was the first battle in the Revolutionary War in 1775. It started when the British went to Concord to take military supplies. But the Americans stopped them at the North Bridge, and attacked them again when they were retreating. They killed 72 British and lost 49.
Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. He was an advisor to George Washington and the secretary of state. He wanted more agriculture and less government. He and his followers became known as the Republicans.
Central North America
East of Cuba
West of California
Down the central of North America
North & South America
Big land masses west of Europe
Gulf of Mexico
East of Mexico
Isthmus of Panama
East of Mexico City
East of Florida