WW1 and Total War

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IB / IBDP year one exams Mr. Baker Practices and effects of WWI

Europe after war

faces terrible destruction, starvation, flu

soldiers killed from war

around 9 million
'lost' generation
Deaths of millions of civilians due to total war terms

Economic consequences of WWI

All powers financed war by borrowing money
land and industries destroyed
-loss of income
- Europe faced e

Overview of War on Western Front WWI

Austria-Hungary open fired on Serbia
Russia mobilized her troops
Britain prepped its expeditionary force
Germany puts Schleifen plan into action

1915

Stalemate created on western front due to trench warfare
Attempts to break this- none were successful
Germany began using poison gas- cleared out trenches of Brit soldiers

1916 key battles

Verdun and Somme
both unsuccessful with huge casualties
no aims or land advancements made in either battle

1917

the year the USA joined the war
Due to German policy stating that there would be no restriction to Sub warfare in the atlantic, american ships were being attacked and american lives being lost
Zimmerman telegram was the final straw
Russian troops had withdrawn from Eastern Front (armistice signed with Germany)- Germany could now focus on Eastern Front

armistice definition

truce

Victory of the Allies WWI

1918
Allie blockade caused Germany to be on the verge of starvation
allies reached the Hindenburg line
German army suffered from low morality and hunger
asked from armistice
NOVEMBER 11 1918 ARMISTICE CAME INTO EFFECT AND WAR WAS ENDED

Eastern Front in 1916

Greatest success for Russia in WWI
Held best equipment yet
huge attack on Austria
Germans put them to stop
Bolshevik party came into rule and Russia pulled out of the war
GERMANY NO LONGER NEEDED TO FIGHT ON 2 FRONTS

War at sea WWI

importance of transporting men and food and supplies
therefore control over sea could ensure your trade and interfere with that of your enemy
allies blockaded Germany
Germany- trying to get equal from the blockade set by the allies- began mines and sub warfare
also led to sinking of neutral ships
battle of Jutland 1916
Germany tried to lure Britain out of port but Britain deciphered German radio signals and brought backup- Germany brought down 14 Brit ships but still failed

War in the air WWI

MAJOR TECHNOLOGY LEAP
Airships- could carry large/heavy loads, Germany saw it as potential bomber and raided london and midlans and east coast
Britain defenses improved- Zeppelins too vulnerable
Replaced by bomber aircrafts- Dog fights and ground attacks and reconnaissance
Air crafts evolved rapidly through war due to importance

define reconnaissance

surveying or researching for tactical reasons

Reasons for Germany's weakness/Failure in WWI

-Marched through Belgium fully aware of its neutrality
-Gamble of schliefen plan and verdun
-High risk strategy of unrestricted U-Boat warfare failed and helped bring US into war
-Ludendorff Offensive (unable to sustain losses),
- low moral ad wakened army by Spanish flu
-Dire economic situation ment supplies were not reaching German army, and German population was ready to revolt, agriculture declined

Reasons for allies success in WWI

- greater men and resources
-greater allies including the US
-maintained control over the sea
-successful blockade

In what ways was WWI a total war?

both sides fought the war not for limited aims but for total victory
Gov. used all weaponry to win, and new tech was developed
involved civilians and soldiers
-trade routes disrupted, thus food and raw materials were not reaching countries (ie british blockade of Germany)

Terms of Armistice

Termination of Military hostiles within six hours of signature
Immediate removal of all german troops from France, Belgium, Luxembourg and Alsace-Lorraine
Removal of all from territory on both sides of Rhine and Eastern front- leaving German territory as it was on Aug 1 1914
Internment of German fleet and surrender of other weapons

impact on non european countries WWI

1919
America and Japan economies boomed
America- Huge developments in technology
-Taken over European overseas market-
industry and trade prospered
Japan-exports almost tripled

Treaty of Versailles

1919
Treaty of Versailles led by Lloyd, Clemenceau, and Wilson (small role played by Vittorio Orlando- Italy)

Issues face by treaty of Versailles and negative reaction to Armistice terms

- Political and social instability
- Different aims of Peacemakers
-Nature of the Armistice settlement
felt that all countries to blame for war
limit or 100,000 man army too small for Germany's size
G. Gould not pay huge reparations without time for economy to recover
w/ loss of territory- many Germans now ruled by non Germans
Not allowing G into LON was insulting, effecting Germany's chance of being completely reliable

Aims of Peacemakers

US- 14 points
build a better and more peaceful world
Punishment of Germany
LN would force countries to work together
FRANCE- wanted harsh settlements for Germany
heavy economic and territorial sanctions
disarmament policies
reparations-pay for destructions/keep G. weak
BRITAIN-
less severe settlement
Wanted G. to loose navy and colonies
Quick recovery for G. to continue trading

Terms of Armistice

Germany had to:
evacuate all occupied territory including Alsace-Lorraine
- Germany split into 2
- land given to poland
- union between Austria
Huge limitations of army
Accept full responsibility for outcome of war
pay 6600 million in reparations

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