You arrive at a local grocery store approximately 5 minutes after a 21-year-old female stopped seizing. She is confused and disoriented; she keeps asking you what happened and tells you that she is thirsty. Her brother, who witnessed the seizure, tells you that she takes phenytoin (Dilantin) for her seizures, but has not taken it in a few days. He also tells you that she has diabetes. In addition to applying high-flow oxygen, you should:
monitor her airway and breathing status and assess her blood glucose level.
The left cerebral hemisphere controls:
the right side of the body.
You are dispatched to a residence for a 66-year-old male who, according to family members, has suffered a massive stroke. Your primary assessment reveals that the patient is unresponsive, apneic, and pulseless. You should:
initiate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and attach an automated external defibrillator (AED) as soon as possible.
Which of the following conditions would be the LEAST likely to mimic the signs and symptoms of a stroke?
The principal clinical difference between a stroke and hypoglycemia is that patients with hypoglycemia:
usually have an altered mental status or decreased level of consciousness.
You respond to a residence for a child who is having a seizure. Upon arrival at the scene, you enter the residence and find the mother holding her child, a 2-year-old male. The child is conscious and crying. According to the mother, the child had been running a high fever and then experienced a seizure that lasted approximately 3 minutes. You should:
transport the child to the hospital and reassure the mother en route.
Which of the following MOST accurately describes the cause of an ischemic stroke?
blockage of a cerebral artery
are usually benign but should be evaluated.
Which of the following medications is NOT used to treat patients with a history of seizures?
The MOST significant risk factor for a hemorrhagic stroke is:
The most basic functions of the body, such as breathing, blood pressure, and swallowing, are controlled by the:
A patient with an altered mental status is:
not thinking clearly or is incapable of being aroused.
You are caring for a 70-year-old female with signs and symptoms of an acute stroke. She is conscious, has secretions in her mouth, and is breathing at a normal rate with adequate depth. You should:
suction her oropharynx and apply 100% oxygen.
Which of the following patients would MOST likely demonstrate typical signs of infection, such as a fever?
a 17-year-old male with depression and anxiety
Individuals with chronic alcoholism are predisposed to intracranial bleeding and hypoglycemia secondary to abnormalities in the:
Which of the following is NOT an assessment parameter included in the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale?
Law enforcement has summoned you to a nightclub, where a 22-year-old female was found unconscious in an adjacent alley. Your primary assessment reveals that her respirations are rapid and shallow and her pulse is rapid and weak. She is wearing a medical alert bracelet that identifies her as an epileptic. There is an empty bottle of vodka next to the patient. You should:
assist ventilations, perform a rapid exam, and prepare for immediate transport.
A patient whose speech is slurred and difficult to understand is experiencing:
A generalized seizure is characterized by:
severe twitching of all the body's muscles.
During the primary assessment of a semiconscious 70-year-old female, you should:
ensure a patent airway and support ventilation as needed.
When assessing arm movement of a patient with a suspected stroke, you should:
ask the patient to close his or her eyes during the assessment.
You are assessing a 49-year-old man who, according to his wife, experienced a sudden, severe headache and then passed out. He is unresponsive and has slow, irregular breathing. His blood pressure is 190/94 mm Hg and his pulse rate is 50 beats/min. His wife tells you that he has hypertension and diabetes. He has MOST likely experienced:
a ruptured cerebral artery.
An absence seizure is also referred to as a:
petit mal seizure.
A patient who is experiencing aphasia is:
unable to produce or understand speech.
Status epilepticus is characterized by:
prolonged seizures without a return of consciousness.
Muscle control and body coordination are controlled by the:
Which of the following MOST accurately describes a simple partial seizure?
a seizure that begins in one extremity
You are caring for a semiconscious man with left-sided paralysis. His airway is patent and his respirations are 14 breaths/min with adequate tidal volume. Treatment for this patient should include:
oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask, left lateral recumbent position, and transport.
Successful treatment of a stroke depends on whether:
thrombolytic therapy is given within 3 hours after symptoms began.
You arrive at the residence of a 33-year-old woman who is experiencing a generalized seizure. She has a small amount of vomitus draining from the side of her mouth. After protecting her from further injury, you should:
maintain her airway with manual head positioning, suction her airway to remove the vomitus, insert a nasopharyngeal airway, and administer high-flow oxygen.
An area of swelling or enlargement in a weakened arterial wall is called:
A patient who is possibly experiencing a stroke is NOT eligible for thrombolytic (fibrinolytic) therapy if he or she:
has bleeding within the brain.
Interruption of cerebral blood flow may result from all of the following, EXCEPT:
When caring for a patient with documented hypoglycemia, you should be MOST alert for:
Which of the following conditions would MOST likely affect the entire brain?
respiratory failure or cardiopulmonary arrest
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when:
the normal body processes destroy a clot in a cerebral artery.
When transporting a stable stroke patient with unilateral paralysis, it is best to place the patient in a:
recumbent position with the paralyzed side down.
When obtaining medical history information from the family of a suspected stroke patient, it is MOST important to determine:
when the patient last appeared normal.
The mental status of a patient who has experienced a typical seizure:
is likely to improve over a period of 5 to 30 minutes.
You arrive at a grocery store shortly after a 35-year-old male stopped seizing. Your assessment reveals that he is confused and incontinent of urine. The patient's girlfriend tells you that he has a history of seizures and takes carbamazepine (Tegretol). When obtaining further medical history from the girlfriend, it is MOST important to:
obtain a description of how the seizure developed.
Stroke is a common cause of brain disorder that
is potentially treatable
When assessing a scene, do not be distracted by the seriousness of the situation or by frightened family members who want you to rush. Look first for:
threats to your safety
The time of onset during a suspected stroke is critical because it helps determine:
whether the patient is a candidate for treatment with clot dissolving drugs
Petit mal seizures are also called
Often, a patient may have experienced a warning prior to the seizure event. The warning is referred to as a(n):
In some situations, the postical state may be characterized by hemiparesis or
weakness on one side of the body, resembling a stroke.
In geriatric patients, you should consider a headache as:
A patient who almost always has an altered or decreased level of consciousness usually is suffering from:
Treat stroke and altered mental status (AMS) in children:
the same way you do for adults
You should always do at least three neurologic tests on patients you suspect of having a stroke. Which of the following is not correct
test speech, facial movement, arm movement
INCORRECT: D check blood sugar if a glucose meter is available
headaches can be caused by which of the following conditions?
A stroke, B tumors, C sinusitis
all of the above
More than 80% of strokes are ________ strokes.
In the mnemonic TIPS AEIOU, the first "I" stands for:
swelling or enlargement of part of a blood vessel, resulting from weakening of the vessel wall
inability to understand and/or produce speech
sensation experienced prior to a seizure; serves as a warning sign that a seizure is about to occur
cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
interruption of blood flow to the brain that results in the loss of brain function. Aka. stroke
state of profound unconsciousness from which one cannot be roused
clotting that forms in a remote area and travels to the site of blockage
seizures that result from sudden high fevers, particularly in children
seizure characterized by severe twitching of all of the body's muscles that may last several minutes or more; formerly known as a grand mal seizure
weakness on one size of the body
one of the two main types of stroke; result of bleeding inside the brain
condition characterized by a low blood glucose level
loss of bowel and/or bladder control; may be the result of a generalized seizure
lack of oxygen in the cells of the brain that causes them to not function properly
one of the two main types of stroke; occurs when blood flow in a particular part of the brain is cut off by blockage (ie clot) inside a blood vessel
seizure affecting a limited portion of the brain
period following a seizure that lasts between 5 and 30 minutes; characterized by labored respirations and some degree of altered mental status.
generalized, uncoordinated muscular activity associated with loss of consciousness; a convulsion
condition in which seizures recur every few minutes or last more than 30 minutes
interruption of blood flow to the brain that results in the loss of brain function, also AKA a CVA, cerebrovascular accident
clotting of the cerebral arteries that may result in the interruption of cerebral blood flow and subsequent stroke
type of seizure that features rhythmic back-and-forth motion of an extremity and body stiffness
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
disorder of the brain in which brain cells temporarily top working because of insufficient oxygen, causing strokelike symptoms that resolve completely within 24 hours of onset.