Nutrition 101 test 1

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A false story has circulated for several years on the Internet about the chickens used by a popular national fried chicken chain. It claims that the chickens used by the company have been genetically modified to have no heads, beaks, or feet and are kept alive with feeding tubes. This is an example of:
an advertorial.
an urban legend.
an infomercial.
anecdotal evidence.

an urban legend

A food provides 8 grams of fat and 300 total calories. What is the percentage of calories as fat in this product?
24%
30%
48%
52%

24%

A person with heart disease is told he has to make some changes in his diet and lifestyle practices. He states "I know that I should make changes because my father and brother both died of heart attacks. But, I really like to have my big steaks for dinner." He is in what stage of behavior change?
precontemplation
contemplation
action
maintenance

contemplation

A popular star has a half-hour television show describing a new dietary supplement that she claims has made her much healthier. During the show she describes how she has seen improvement in her skin, hair, and eyesight without going to the doctor. This is an example of:
an advertorial.
an urban legend.
an infomercial.
anecdotal evidence.

an infomercial

A woman who is trying to lose weight will be more motivated if she considers:
trying some recipes from a new cookbook.
the reward of being able to fit into her favorite clothes again.
asking her husband to cook their meals.
the confidence she has from setting goals for changing eating habits.

the reward of being able to fit into her favorite clothes again

All of the following nutrients are organic except:
minerals.
fat.
vitamins.
Carbohydrates

minerals

Carbohydrate and protein each contain _____ calories in a gram.
2
4
7
9

4

Cultural traditions regarding food are static and inflexible.
True
False

false

Enriched and fortified foods are not necessarily more nutritious than whole basic foods.
True
False

True

Food scientists measure food energy in:
calories.
kilograms.
grams.
units of weight.

calories

Foods that have been subjected to any process such as addition of additives, milling, or cooking are called _____ foods.
processed
partitioned
natural
enriched

processed

Good food choices can reduce the chance of developing chronic diseases.
True
False

True

Harry has a monotonous diet and eats the same foods every day. You try to convince him to eat a variety of foods because:
some less well-known nutrients and some nonnutrient food components could be important to health.
a monotonous diet may deliver large amounts of unwanted minerals.
a monotonous diet may lead to decreased appetite and severe weight loss.
large amounts of the same foods may lead to an excess of certain vitamins.

some less well-known nutrients and some nonnutrient food components could be important to health.

Having cake and ice cream as part of a birthday celebration is an example of which food choice factor?
economy
positive association
social pressure
values

positive association

How many calories are in a food that contains 20 grams of carbohydrate, 8 grams protein, and 5 grams of fat?
157
232
258
378

157

In nutrition, the word essential means:
necessary for good health and proper functioning of the body.
a necessary nutrient that can be obtained only from the diet.
that the body can manufacture the nutrient from raw materials.
compounds the body can make for itself.

a necessary nutrient that can be obtained only from the diet.

Malnutrition includes deficiencies, imbalances, and excesses of nutrients, any of which can be detrimental over time.
True
False

True

Many factors influence food choices by individuals. Among these are:
cultural traditions, which are inflexible and cannot be changed.
the convenience of meals that require little or no preparation.
the emotional comfort provided by foods with high nutrient content.
expense, since foods that cost more are always more nutritious.

the convenience of meals that require little or no preparation.

Most foods that are high in calcium are poor sources of iron. This statement illustrates the importance of the characteristic of a nutritious diet known as:
adequacy.
variety.
moderation.
Balance

balance

Nutraceutical is a term that has no legal definition.
True
False

True

Of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States, _____ are related to nutrition, and 1 to alcohol consumption.
2
3
4
5

4

One gram of alcohol is equal to _____ calories.
two
four
seven
nine

seven

One of the characteristics of a nutritious diet is that the foods provide enough of each essential nutrient, fiber, and energy. This principle of diet planning is called:
variety.
balance.
moderation.
adequacy.

adequacy

Phytochemicals found in foods are important because:
they increase the risk of developing certain diseases when they are eaten.
they decrease the risk of developing certain diseases when they are eaten.
they are considered to be essential nutrients.
they are a new category of vitamins.

they decrease the risk of develping certain diseases when they are eaten

Rice is an example of a _____ food used in Southeast Asia.
fortified
natural
staple
processed

staple

The abundance of types of foods today has made it:
more difficult to plan a nutritious diet.
much easier to select nutritious foods for a diet.
healthier to combine nutraceuticals for disease prevention.
easier to balance a deficient diet with functional foods.

more difficult to plan a nutritious diet

The compound that gives hot peppers their burning taste is called a:
toxin.
nutrient.
supplement.
phytochemical.

phytochemical

The development of chronic diseases has a connection to poor diet and:
can be completely prevented by eating a good diet.
will not be affected by lifestyle choices.
is not affected by genetics.
can be reduced by food choices along with lifestyle choices.

can be reduced by food choices along with lifestyle choices

The energy-yielding nutrients include:
protein.
fat.
vitamins.
a and b
a and c

a and b

The human genome is 99.9% the same in all people.
True
False

true

The major key to evaluating a food is to:
explore how it can help prevent an illness.
determine how you use it within your total diet over time.
judge how popular it is among consumers.
study the role it plays in the body.

determine how you use it within your total diet over time

The major role in the body that all vitamins and minerals have is:
to act as regulators in body processes.
to serve as parts of body structure.
to provide energy.
to prevent chronic disease.

to act as regulators in body processes

The most difficult obstacle to changing behavior is:
competence, because it is difficult to obtain new knowledge.
motivation, because it is difficult to change.
confidence, because it cannot be improved.
self-efficacy, because people don't believe in their ability to take action.

motivation, because it is difficult to obtain new knowledge

The most energy-rich of the nutrients is:
carbohydrate.
fat.
protein.
water.

fat

The source of valid nutrition information is:
newspaper articles.
TV programs.
scientific journals.
health magazines.

scientific journals

The term _"____" has no legal definition but is often used on food labels to imply wholesomeness.
medical
natural
processed
enriched

natural

Three ounces of beef stew offers about the same amount of iron as three ounces of water-packed tuna, but the beef contains over 300 calories while the tuna contains about 100 calories. This is an example of:
balance.
nutrient density.
dietary variety.
moderation.

nutrient density

When considering the effect of genetics and nutrition on chronic disease development in individuals:
we need to understand that all individuals have the same genetic makeup.
sound nutrition practices have the greatest influence on prevention of all chronic diseases.
our genetic inheritance determines the influence nutrition will have on disease prevention.
scientists have recently been able to identify all the genetic connections to chronic disease

our genetic inheritance determines the influence nutrition will have on disease prevention.

When evaluating the effectiveness of the nutrition and physical activity objectives in Healthy People 2010, public health officials have found that:
we have been successful in reducing the number of deaths from heart disease and stroke.
heart disease is no longer the leading cause of death among adults.
physical activity has an influence on health that is completely separate from nutrition.
the numbers of overweight individuals is being effectively reduced.

we have been successful in reducing the number of deaths from heart disease and stroke

When making food choices, the best types of foods to include in your diet are:
natural foods, because they are the most nutritious and complete.
fast foods, because they are the most readily available.
whole foods, because they provide the basis of a nutritious diet.
processed foods, because they are fortified with all missing nutrients.

whoe foods, because the provide the basis of a nutritious diet

Which of the following conditions is the most nutrition responsive?
hypertension
diabetes
iron-deficiency anemia
sickle-cell anemia

iron-deficiency anemia

Which of the following foods offers the most nutrients per calorie?
potatoes
corn
green peas
carrots

carrots

Which of the following is a characteristic of alcohol?
It is a nutrient.
It contributes calories.
It interferes with repair of body tissues.
a and b
b and c

b and c

Which of the following nutrients yields energy, but also provides materials that form structures and working parts of body tissues?
carbohydrates
protein
fats
vitamins

protein

Which of the following terms was coined in an attempt to identify foods that might lend protection against chronic diseases by way of the nutrients or nonnutrients they contain?
natural foods
organic foods
basic foods
functional foods

functional foods

You can tell a claim about nutrition is suspect if it bears the following characteristics:
it is being made by an advertiser who is paid to make claims.
the evidence used to support the claim is from a university laboratory.
it appears in a scientific journal that is peer-reviewed.
it is being made by a public health nutritionist.

it is beibd made by an advertiser who is paid to make claims

You purchase a food product that is enriched. This means that:
the product is superior to similar products.
the product is low in calories and high in nutrients.
the product could be either nutritious or not nutritious.
a and b

the product could be either nutritious or not nutritious

You see a new finding about nutrition reported in your local newspaper. Based on this information you would:
decide that the information is factual.
contribute it to media sensationalism.
feel confident about changing your diet accordingly.
wait to apply the findings until they have been repeated and confirmed by scientists.

wait to apply the findings until they have been repeated and confirmed by scientists

Your family always has rice available at every meal, just as it has been for every generation. This is an example of _____ of food selection.
cultural tradition
emotional comfort
availability
social pressure

cultural tradition

Your food intake on a daily basis affects your health because:
you must eat adequate amounts of every nutrient daily to stay healthy.
improper balance of nutrients over time can lead to chronic diseases in the future.
malnutrition is a result of not eating enough foods.
overeating will result in very quickly developing a chronic disease.

improper balance of nutrients over time can lead to chronic diseases in the future

Timing of meals is important because the digestive tract is unable to digest food at certain times.
True
False

false

What are the major roles of the villi and microvilli in the small intestine?
the microvilli absorb nutrients into the lymphatic system
the microvilli trap nutrients so the villi cells can absorb them
the villi block toxins from absorption into the blood
the villi complete the breakdown of foods into nutrients

the microvilli trap nutrients so the villi cells can absorb them

When the colon is not functioning properly, complications that may arise include:
constipation, which can best be relieved with laxatives used on a regular basis.
diarrhea, which can be corrected by colonic irrigation.
indigested foods from improper combinations that cannot be digested completely.
irritable bowel syndrome caused by stress and lack of physical activity.

irritable bowel syndrome caused by stress and lack of physical activity

When the pancreas detects a high concentration of the blood's sugar, glucose, it releases:
lymph.
insulin.
antibodies.
glucagon.

insulin

Which of the following alert(s) your conscious mind to the sensation of hunger?
brain
hormones
taste buds
a and b
b and c

a and b

Which of the following is not one of the major storage systems which store and release nutrients to meet the cells' needs between meals?
liver
muscles
fat cells
pancreas

pancreas

Which of the following organs makes almost all of the body's alcohol-processing machinery?
stomach
pancreas
liver
spleen

liver

Which of the following should be consumed at intervals throughout the day?
vitamin-rich foods
fat-containing foods
mineral-rich foods
carbohydrate-containing foods

carbohydrate-containing foods

Without food to replenish it, the liver's glycogen supply can be depleted within:
1 - 3 hours.
3 - 6 hours.
4 - 8 hours.
6 - 9 hours.

3-6 hours

You are concerned about a classmate who is binge drinking on a regular basis and want to let him know about long-term complications that may rise from that practice. What would you tell him to try to convince him to cut back on drinking?
it is better to drink beer and wine because they are milder than mixed drinks
alcohol slows down fat metabolism so you need to eat more fat in your diet
excessive alcohol intake can lead to deterioration of skeletal and heart muscle
it is better to drink on an empty stomach so the body can metabolize it quickly

excessive alcohol intake can lead to deterioration of skeletal and heart muscle

You have just consumed a meal very high in fat. As a result, hormonal messages will tell an organ to send _____ in amounts matched to the amount of fat present.
bile
bicarbonate
hydrochloric acid
mucus

bile

A person can eat when hunger is absent because:
the hypothalamus monitors the availability of nutrients.
the conscious mind of the cortex can override body signals.
the digestive tract sends messages to the hypothalamus.
the stomach intensifies its contractions and creates hunger pangs

the conscious mind of the cortex can override body signals

A person in an emergency situation is unable to eat for several weeks. Which of the following would provide the energy that this person would need to survive?
fat
liver glycogen
bones
muscle glycogen

fat

As food moves through the digestive tract it spends the most time in the:
esophagus because of the slow movement of peristalsis on chewed food.
stomach because of the extensive breakdown of carbohydrates and fats.
small intestine because of the time it takes to absorb through the villi.
large intestine because of the need to partially digest fiber and absorb water.

large intestine because of the need to partially digest fiber and absorb water

As the villi in the small intestine are exposed to nutrients:
they will absorb the greatest percentage possible of every nutrient into the blood.
they will deliver minerals into the lymph system for transport.
they will absorb partially digested fiber into the blood for delivery to the colon.
they will preferentially absorb a greater percentage of deficient nutrients.

the will preferentially absorb a greater percentage of deficient nutrients

Digestion of foods includes the mechanical actions of:
chewing to allow some nutrients to be absorbed into the body through the tongue.
peristalsis waves to move the foods down through the digestive tract.
the stomach to gently release foods into the small intestine.
the small intestine to absorb water and create the paste that forms feces.

peristalsis waves to move the foods down through the digestive tract

Excess nutrients are stored in various body tissues for future use. An example of this would be:
fat, which is stored in small amounts in cells and which needs frequent replenishing.
glycogen, which has unlimited storage capacity in the muscles.
vitamins, which all can be stored in unlimited amounts in muscle tissue.
calcium, which is stored in reserves in the skeletal system.

calcium, which is stored in reserves in the skeletal system

In cases of severe undernutrition, the small intestine will react by:
shrinking to a much smaller surface.
expanding to a much larger surface.
increasing intestinal muscle activity.
increasing the amount of nutrients absorbed.

shrinking to a much smaller surface

Most people have aversions to _____ tastes.
sweet
salty
fatty
bitter

bitter

Nutrients are delivered from the intestines through the circulatory system to the cells by:
transport through the blood to the liver for chemical altering to make them better suited for use by the tissues.
transport to the heart which then delivers them to the individual cells in the body.
transport to the kidneys which send them to the cells in the body.
transport through the lymph system to the heart for distribution.

transport through the blood to the liver for chemical altering to make them better suited for use by the tissues.

Some nutrients are stored in the body in much smaller quantities than others are.
True
False

true

Some vitamins are stored in the body without limit, even if they reach toxic levels.
True
False

true

The digestive tract needs _____, which provides the bulk against which the muscles of the colon can work.
energy
fiber
nutrients
water

fiber

The liver converts excess energy-containing nutrients into:
glycogen.
protein.
fat.
a and b
a and c

a and c

The primary organ of digestion and absorption is the:
mouth.
stomach.
small intestine.
large intestine.

small intestine

The stomach's main function is the digestion of what nutrient?
protein
carbohydrate
fat
fiber

protein

The Daily Values reflect the needs of an "average person" consuming between _____ calories a day.
1,500 and 2,000
2,000 and 2,500
2,500 and 3,000
3,000 and 3,500

2,000 and 2,500

The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are appropriately used for all of the following except:
estimating the nutrient needs of persons with medical problems.
estimating the adequacy of an individual's nutrient intake.
planning diets for population groups like military personnel.
ensuring that minimum nutrient requirements are met.

estimating the nutrient needs of persons with medical problems

The Nutrition Facts Panel on a food label lists the following information for amounts per serving: 111 calories; 23 calories from fat. What percentage of the calories are provided by fat?
11%
19%
21%
32%

21%

The bottom portion of the Nutrition Facts panel on a food package:
is identical on every label.
lists the Daily Values standards.
conveys information specific to the food inside the package.
a and b
b and c

a and b

When determining the amounts of food to eat from each group in the USDA Food Guide each day, you need to remember that:
the recommended amounts will vary, depending on age, physical activity, and gender.
the recommended amounts are the same for all food groups to provide nutritional adequacy.
you can eat the same foods every day, as long as you are selecting from all food groups.
you should not eat more than the recommended amounts from each food group.

the recommended amounts will vary, depending on age, physical activity, and gender

When planning a healthful diet, you should remember that:
the more physically active you are, the lower your discretionary calorie allowance.
the more sedentary you are, the greater your discretionary calorie allowance.
you do not need to worry about discretionary calories if you are physically active.
the more physically active you are, the greater your discretionary calorie allowance.

the more physically active you are, the greater your discretionary calorie allowance

Which of the following foods do not fit into any of the five major food groups in the USDA Food Guide?
yogurt, legumes, and cheese
peaches, peanuts, and ready-to-eat cereal
margarine, gravy, and jelly
eggs, frozen yogurt, and avocados

margarine, gravy, and jelly

Which of the following is the best and safest source of phytochemicals?
whole foods
supplements
herbal remedies
organic foods

whole foods

Which of the following people would not be covered by the DRI, based on assumptions made by the DRI committee?
Harry, a 35-year-old healthy businessman
Cindy, a 21-year-old college athlete
Robert, a 20 year old with cystic fibrosis
Joann, a 35-year-old female vegetarian

robert, a 20 yr old with cystic fibrosis

Which vegetable subgroup of the USDA Food Guide is not correctly matched with its target nutrient(s)?
orange and deep yellow vegetables - vitamin D
starchy vegetables - carbohydrate
dark green vegetables - folate
legumes - iron and protein

orange and deep yellow vegetables - vitamin D

A person has had the following vegetables over the past week: carrots, pinto beans, corn, cauliflower, coleslaw, and mashed potatoes. Which of the following vegetables should he eat to be sure he has had representation of each of the subgroups for the week?
broccoli
sweet potatoes
green peas
mushrooms

broccoli

All of the following are characteristics of exchange systems except:
they pay special attention to calories.
they give a sense of which foods are similar to each other.
they sort foods by their carbohydrate contents only.
they highlight the fact that most foods provide more than just one energy nutrient.

they sort foods by their carbohydrate contents only

An important role of the exchange system of categorizing foods is to:
provide food lists for people who want an exact match on all nutrients in a food category.
provide groupings of similar foods by their carbohydrate, fat, protein, and calorie content.
calculate the exact number of calories eaten in a person's diet.
have foods available from one group to substitute for foods not liked in another group.

provide groupings of similar foods by their carbohydrate, fat, protein, and calorie content.

Any food providing 10% or more of the Daily Value for a nutrient is considered to be a _____ source of the nutrient.
poor
reliable
good
excellent

good

Food group plans primarily dictate:
particular foods to choose each day.
appropriate portion sizes for foods.
estimates of the amounts of carbohydrate, protein, and fat in foods.
numbers and sizes of servings to choose each day.

numbers and sizes of servings to choose each day

Foods that provide zero discretionary calories:
are naturally low in fat and have no added fats or sugars.
should be avoided when trying to lose weight.
are more processed foods.
are not as nutrient dense.

are naturally low in fat and have no added fats or sugars

If a nutrient does not have a Tolerable Upper Intake Level, this means that:
it is safe to consume in any amount.
insufficient data exist to establish a value.
no caution is required when consuming supplements of that nutrient.
it is safe when supplemental levels are added to foods.

insufficient data exist to establish a value

If vitamin C has been added to cranberry juice, the label must include:
nutrient information.
an ingredients list.
a health claim.
a and b
b and c

a and b

In exchange lists, high-fat cheese is included as a member of the _____ list.
milk
vegetable
high-fat meat
fat

high-fat meat

In the exchange lists, vegetables are categorized according to:
carbohydrate content.
fat content.
protein content.
sodium content.

carbohydrate content

On average, one should try to get 100% of the DRI for every nutrient to ensure an adequate intake over time.
True
False

true

Tea and certain spices are not included in the USDA Food Guide. This means that you should consider which of the following when deciding whether to include them in your diet?
they contain no calories so you should not eat them
they contain phytochemicals for health so you should consider using them
they interfere with nutrients in foods so you should not eat them
they have been excluded from the Food Guide because they are toxic

they contain phytochemicals for health so you should consider using them

The Dietary Guidelines encourage Americans to consume less:
refined grains.
fruits.
added sugars.
vegetables.
a and c

a and c

The DRI Committee recommended a diet that contains _____% of its calories from carbohydrate.
10-35
20-35
45-65
50-70

45-65

A desirable intake of dietary fiber is _____ grams daily, according to the American Dietetic Association.
10 - 26
20 - 35
27 - 40
40 - 55

20-35

A person with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes has just been advised that he should begin a 2100-calorie diet with 45% of the energy coming from carbohydrate. How many grams of carbohydrate would that be?
105
135
236
337

236

Approximately _____ grams a day of carbohydrate are needed to ensure complete sparing of body protein in an average-size person.
50
75
100
130

130

Carbohydrates are essential to provide energy for the body because:
the glucose that is produced from them is vital to fuel most of the body's cells.
proteins are available only to provide building block materials for tissues.
ketone bodies produced from proteins do not provide adequate energy for cells.
fats are not able to provide any energy to the cells.

the glucose that is produced form them is vital to fuel most of the body's cells

Characteristics of type 2 diabetes include all of the following except:
insulin resistance of the body's cells.
blood glucose levels that rise too high.
a pancreas that makes too little or no insulin.
blood insulin levels that rise too high.

a pancreas that makes too little or no insulin

Complex carbohydrates:
include both single sugar units and linked pairs of sugar units.
are known as the monosaccharides and disaccharides.
are long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fiber.
a and b
b and c

are long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fiber

Fiber has been recommended in the diet for its possible benefits in reducing heart disease by lowering blood cholesterol. How is fiber thought to play its role in lowering blood cholesterol?
insoluble fiber binds with cholesterol in the large intestine and is excreted in feces
viscous fiber binds with bile in the intestine and is excreted in feces
soluble fiber binds with cholesterol in the blood and is excreted through the liver
insoluble fiber converts to bile in the large intestine and binds with cholesterol

viscous fiber binds with bile in the intesting and is excreted in feces

Hormones play an important role in regulating blood glucose levels, with:
insulin releasing glycogen from muscles for body cells to use for energy.
glucagon decreasing the removal of glucose from the blood during stress.
epinephrine breaking down liver glycogen to provide glucose in times of danger.
insulin transporting extra glucose to fat cells for storage.

epinephrine breaking down liver glycogen to provide glucose in times of danger

How would you respond to someone who states that white bread is just as nutritious as whole-wheat bread?
White bread is just as nutritious because it has been enriched with iron, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, and folate.
Whole-wheat bread is preferable because it is likely to contain several nutrients not added to white bread.
Whole-wheat bread is higher in fiber content than white bread.
a and b
b and c

b and c

Lactose intolerance can cause nutritional complications because:
the person affected will not be able to consume adequate carbohydrate in their diet.
inadequate calcium intake from avoiding dairy products can affect bone development.
it happens most frequently in young children who then will consume inadequate protein.
it results in the inability to eat any types or amounts of dairy products.

inadequate calcium intake from avoding dairy products can affect bone development

One of the main reasons that obesity contributes to type 2 diabetes is because:
inflammation in the tissues triggers them to resist insulin.
excess glucose builds up in the tissues.
increased blood lipids result in more fat available for storage.
abnormally high levels of insulin remove too much glucose from the blood.

inflammation in the tissues triggers them to resist insulin

Potential harmful effects of too much fiber include:
dehydration.
limited absorption of iron.
extreme weight loss.
a and b
b and c

a and b

Products of the incomplete breakdown of fat that occurs when carbohydrates are not available are called:
protein-sparing products.
glycogen bodies.
ketone bodies.
glucagon products.

ketone bodies

Sugar has been implicated by many people in some major health problems; however, the only effect of sugar on health that has been shown scientifically is that:
sugar consumed in large amounts leads to obesity, even when calorie level, physical activity, and fat intake remain the same as in people who do not consume the same amount of sugar.
eating high levels of concentrated sugar puts a strain on the pancreas, leading to diabetes.
children who eat large amounts of sugar will develop symptoms of hyperactivity.
in developing countries, added sugar is providing more energy to the diet while people are decreasing their physical activity.

in developing countries, added sugar is providing more energy to the diet while people are decreasing their physical activity.

The best way to lose fat, maintain lean body tissues, and maintain the health of the body is to:
control calories from fat.
control total calories.
control calories from carbohydrate.
control calories from protein.

control total calories

The form of starch that is most easily digested in the body is:
cooked beans.
oatmeal.
barley.
white flour.

white flour

When considering the health concerns of diabetes it is important to remember that:
it only affects a small number of people compared to other chronic diseases.
if poorly controlled it can damage major organs and tissues in the body.
type 2 diabetes is never seen in children so is not of concern for them.
type 1 diabetes can be prevented by controlling sugar intake in the diet.

if poorly controlled it can damage major organs and tissues in the body

Which of the following is characteristic of type 1 diabetes?
the person's immune system attacks the cells of the pancreas
the pancreas no longer produces insulin
the person is usually overweight
a and b
b and c

a and b

Which of the following is the most-used monosaccharide inside the body?
fructose
lactose
glucose
galactose

glucose

Which of the following terms would you look for on a bread label to choose the most nutritious product?
wheat flour
whole grain
unbleached flour
brown bread

whole grain

A 26-year-old male works in a high-stress sales position. He has a family history of premature heart disease and he is physically inactive. How many risk factors for CVD does he have?
1
2
3
4

3

About 95% of the lipids in foods and in the human body are:
triglycerides.
phospholipids.
sterols.
cholesterol.

triglycerides

All of the following are found mainly in foods that contain fat except:
vitamin A.
vitamin C.
vitamin D.
vitamin K.

vitamin C

All of the following problems are associated with low-fat diets except:
they are difficult to maintain over time.
they are not necessarily low-calorie diets.
they may exclude nutritious foods.
they result in nutrient deficiencies.

the result in nutrient deficiencies

Approximately what percent calories from fat would be provided by a bowl of soup containing 200 calories and 99 calories from fat?
44%
50%
67%
72%

50%

As you are deciding how much fat to include in your meal, which aspects of its contribution in foods would you want to consider?
foods containing fat are much bulkier and heavier than low-fat foods
fat in foods will create a strong odor that may reduce your appetite
when fat is eaten with phytochemicals it will block their absorption
fat in your meal will contribute to satiety, the feeling of fullness after a meal

fat in your meal will contribute to satiety, the feeling of fullness after a meal

Cholesterol is important in nutrition because:
your body is not able to produce it so cholesterol is considered an essential nutrient.
it is necessary for the production of the emulsifier bile by the liver.
it is found in most foods we consume, though its main source is plants.
it can contribute to weight loss when too much is eaten.

it is necessary for the production of the emulsifier bile by the liver

Cholesterol is the best known of the:
phospholipids.
lipids.
sterols.
triglycerides.

sterols

Cooking oils should be stored in tightly covered containers in order to:
prevent them from becoming rancid.
retard the oxidation process.
prevent them from losing fat-soluble vitamins.
a and b
a and c

a and b

Current recommendations for heart health are to reduce intake of trans fats in the diet. How would this be best accomplished?
simply eliminate all foods with trans fats from your diet because they are not currently found in many foods
read labels to select foods that say "trans-fat free" because all are healthier food selections
consume as little trans fat as possible because of the harmful health effects that are similar to saturated fats
use fat replacers such as olestra, which provide the same nutrient content as regular fats without being saturated

consume as little trans fat as possible because of the harmful health effects that are similar to saturated fats

DRI recommendations concerning intakes of fats include:
consume up to 35% of calories as fat.
keep saturated fat intake as low as possible.
keep cholesterol intake at 100 mg.
a and b
b and c

a and b

EPA and DHA are:
not important in nutrition.
essential fatty acids.
found in the oils of fish.
omega-6 fatty acids.

found in the oils of fish

Fatty acids may differ from one another:
in chain length.
in degree of saturation.
in number of calories.
a and b
b and c

a and b

If the fat in a container is solid at room temperature, what type of fat is it?
polyunsaturated fat
monounsaturated fat
saturated fat
short-chain fatty acids

saturated fate

Nutrient characteristics of nuts that may lower heart disease risk include:
they are high in dietary fiber.
they contain vitamin E, an antioxidant.
they are low in total fat.
a and b
a and c

a and b

Some ground turkey and chicken products in which the skin is ground in are much higher in fats than lean beef.
True
False

true

The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid classifies legumes as:
part of the meats group.
part of the poultry, eggs, and cheese group.
part of the "eat less often" group.
part of the fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains group.

part of the fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains group

The best way to increase consumption of omega-3 fatty acids is to:
increase intake of seed oils.
consume 2 fish meals per week.
limit intake of polyunsaturated fats.
take fish oil in supplements.

consume 2 fish meals per week

The current advice on following a diet to prevent heart disease is to:
reduce the total fat content to 20% so as to result in a reduction of total calorie intake.
switch to butter on your foods because margarine is higher in trans fats.
substitute olive oil for saturated and trans fat in spreads and sauces.
use the Mediterranean diet recommendations because it is a low-fat diet.

substitute olive oil for saturated and trans fat in spreads and sauces

The lipoproteins LDL and HDL are important in heart disease risk because of the following properties and actions:
LDL are much lighter in weight because they do not contain as much cholesterol to take to the cells.
HDL are affected by the amount of cholesterol we eat in our diet.
LDL are beneficial because they transport cholesterol to the tissues and away from blood.
HDL play an important role in scavenging cholesterol from the tissues for disposal.

HDL play an important role in scavenging cholesterol from the tissues for disposal

The major storage form of fats in our body is:
triglycerides, which are made up of fatty acids and glycerol.
fatty acids, which are made up of trans fats and bile.
cholesterol, which is stored in the blood.
lecithin, which is stored in the liver.

triglycerides, which are made up of fatty acids and glycerol

The most heart-healthy margarines are those:
which list liquid oil as the first ingredient.
which are the most resistant to rancidity.
which have received the most hydrogenation.
which are the most expensive products.

which list liquid oil as the first ingredient

The role of bile in fat digestion is to:
digest fats in the stomach.
emulsify fats in the small intestine.
transport fats through the circulatory system.
split fats into smaller components.

emulsify fats in the small intestine

To protect yourself from consuming too much _____, you would limit your consumption of swordfish, king mackerel, and shark.
lead
arsenic
iodine
mercury

mercury

Triglycerides consist of:
three fatty acids.
trans fatty acids.
glycerol.
a and b
a and c

a and c

What is the most accurate statement to make about the process of hydrogenation of liquid vegetable oils?
hydrogenation makes the oils more healthy because of the addition of hydrogen to keep them liquid in food products
oils that have been hydrogenated are more resistant to oxidation that will spoil them and make them rancid
hydrogenation will increase the activity of vitamins found in the oils
eating hydrogenated oils has the same health benefits as eating liquid vegetable oils

oils that have been hydrogenated are more resistant to oxidation that will spoil them and make them rancid

Which of the following statements best describes individuals who have had their gallbladder removed?
The liver stops producing bile.
They cannot digest food.
Bile is released directly into the small intestine.
Bile is not delivered into the small intestine.

bile is released directly into the small intestine

Which of the following words on an ingredient list would alert you to the presence of trans fatty acids in the product?
hydrogenated vegetable oil
liquid corn oil
shortening
a and b
a and c

a and c

Your diet has been evaluated and you are consuming an average of 2800 calories, 62 grams of saturated fat, and 5 grams of trans fat daily. Are these values within recommendations for heart health?
yes, because the energy from saturated fat is within the recommended percentage for total fat energy
no, because the energy from saturated fat is higher than the recommended percentage for saturated fat
yes, because trans fat is within the recommendation for trans fat energy percentage in the diet
no, because the trans fat energy percentage is lower than the recommendation for total fat energy

no, because the energy from saturated fat is higher than the recommended percentage for saturated fat

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