Parts and Functions of Eukaryotic Cells

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Cell membrane (Plasma membrane)

controls entry into and out of cell, surface of the cell that separates the inside of the cell from the surrounding extracellular fluid, controls the entry or elimination of ions, nutrients, and waste. Also is the first part of the cell affected by its surroundings and gives stability to tissues

Cytoplasm (Cytosol)

a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended; region of the cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus

Nucleus

a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

Ribosomes

make proteins

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

System of internal membranes within the cytoplasm. Membranes are rough due to the presence of ribosomes. functions in transport of substances such as proteins within the cytoplasm

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

An endomembrane system where lipids are synthesized, calcium levels are regulated, and toxic substances are broken down.

Golgi apparatus

stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum

Transport vesicle

A tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell.

Lysosomes

An organelle containing digestive enzymes

Peroxisomes

Contain oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals

Vacuole

a tiny cavity filled with fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell

Mitochondrion

cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use

Chloroplast

plastid containing chlorophyll and other pigments

Nucleolus

a small round body of protein in a cell nucleus

Cytoskeleton

a microscopic network of actin filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and coherence

Microtubules

hollow tubes of protein about 25 nanometers in diameter, support the cell and moves organelles within the cell

Microfilaments

Fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton

Centrosome

Structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells, important during cell division; functions as a microtubule-organizing center. A centrosome has two centrioles.

Centrioles

Two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope

Flagellum

a lash-like appendage used for locomotion (e.g., in sperm cells and some bacteria and protozoa)

Chromatin

granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins

Nuclear envelope (nuclear membrane)

separates nucleus from cytosol, composed of 2 bilipid layers, covered with nuclear pores through which substances are able to move into and out of the nucleus

Endomembrane system

The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles; includes the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles.

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