what is biosecurity?
keeping diseases out, deals with:
-incoming breeding stock
-wildlife (rodents, birds)
-feeds and biologicals
what is disease prevention?
it is on site:
-all in all out
- sanitation= kill pathogens
- sub-therepeutic antimicrobials
what are the rules of biosecurity?
rule 1: put as much DISTANCE as possible b/w your pigs and other pigs
rule 2: isolate, TEST and acclimate in-coming breeding stock, do not allow entry if infected
rule 3: CONTROL FLOW of people, pigs, feed, and equipment
What is SPF?
Specific Pathogen Free
-started in 1960's
-pigs surgically removed from sow and raised in incubators
what are secondary herds?
pigs purchased from someone whose pigs were surgically removed
what is SEW?
Segregated Early Weaning
-wean pigs @ 10-14 days
-passive immunity from sow is still high
-piglets moved to new, clean site
-have no contact with any other pigs
what are the pig disease categories?
-diseases we don't want to get (that we know about)
-diseases regulated by the US government w/ an eye towards eradication
-diseases to manage
what are the eradicated U.S. Swine Diseases? and how would we get them?
hog cholera, classic swine fever, african swine fever, hoof and mouth
(exotic disease entry or bioterrorism)
what is hog cholera?
-classic swine fever
-viral; single strand of RNA
-US eradication from 1962-1976
-not eradicated from eastern europe
-shed virus for 10-20 days
-feeding garbage exacerbates the spread
-6 day incubation
symptoms: respiratory distress; enteric problems; anorexia; hunched
what is swine fever?
like hog cholera
what is foot (hoof) and mouth?
-RNA virus= 7 serotypes
-can infect pigs, cattle, sheep and goats
-aerosol is highly contagious
-can be transmitted in semen; not fetus
-north and central america= free
south am., africa, and asia= infected
-3-5 day incubation
symptoms: vesicles in mouth + b/w toes, sharp fever, abortion; skin lesions leading to sluffing of tissue
which eradicated U.S. Swine disease do we not have a vaccine for? (foot and mouth, hog cholera, swine fever)
what can you be validated as free from by state agencies? (feral pigs also major carriers of these)
diseases regulated by the US gov.
what are diseases regulated by the US gov?
pseudorabies and brucellosis
what is pseudorabies?
-pigs are the only "natural host" but infects all farm animals and vermin
symptoms: nervous (ataxia) among younger pigs, respiratory and repro symp. among older pigs (G-F & sows)
-mortality can be 100% among piglets
-few gross lesions; respiratory and GI tracts are affected
_states & USA quarantine the heard as a part of the eradication program
SEVERITY = 9
-infects pigs and humans
-nearly eradicated in the US (texas still infected)
-repro failures, especially abortions
what are the classes of production diseases?
respiratory, enteric, reproductive, parasitic, genetic
what would you see in an enteric disease?
loose stool, deals w/ digestive tract
what are the respiratory diseases? (5) and their severity levels?
PRRS (porcine respiratory + repro syndrome) =10, Atrophic Rhinitis = , mycoplasmal pneumonia =6, Actinobacillus Pleuropneumonia (AP) =8, swine influenza =5-5 1/2
what are the enteric diseases and their severity levels? (5)
TGE (transmissible Gastro Enteritis) =8-9, E. Coli=5, Swine Dysentery =6-7, Ileitis (proliferative enteropathies) =8, Coccidia=4
what are the repro diseases and their severity levels? (7)
brucellosis, leptospirosis=6-7, parvo virus=6-7, PRRS=10, MMA=5, Prolapse Ulcer & Hernia =3?, Skin/joint problems (erysipelas) =3
what is the ascarid (egg) lifecycle of the adult roundworm?
*travel via blood to liver, heart, lungs
*coughed and reswallowed
*adults live in GI Tract
*eggs passed via feces
what kind of larvae gets into muscle?
trichinae=another type of worm, could affect humans
what are some behavioral problems found in pigs?
*tail biting and ear chewing
what are some behavioral issues that are not really problems?
*phantom nest building
*aggression in pigs less than 100LB
What is PSS and in what pigs is this found?
Porcine Stress Syndrome and it is found in the Pietrain
How and When was PSS first recognized?
when lean, heavy muscled pigs died suddenly in the late 1960's
what causes the stress induced muscle contraction found in PSS?
mixing with other pigs, temperature change, moving
what are the symptoms of PSS?
muscle rigidity, labored breathing, increased body temp
what is the cause of Pss?
mutation in gene regulating Ca++ channel proteins in muscle= channel proteins can't stop flow of calcium
How do you test if pig has PSS?
give them halothane gene=produces the physiological response of muscle contraction=PSS
what is PSE and in what kind of pigs is it found?
it is pale, soft, exudative condition in meat=usually found in PSS pigs
what controls PSE?
PH=when ph goes down=more acidic=PSE
how is PH related to PSE?
glycogen breakdown produces lactic acid which lowers PH (anaerobic conditions), muscle becomes more acidic and which reduces its ability of muscle fibers to hold moisture
where do pigs get fat from?
front to rear
what are the primary pork cuts and where are they on a pig?
boston shoulder, loin, ham, belly (not lean cut), picnic shoulder
what are the important traits in determining pork carcass value?
hot carcass weight, carcass cutability, carcass quality
what is hot carcass weight?
carcass yield=70-75% of live weight, fat and muscle will increase yield, is heavier than when cooled so preferred
what is carcass cutability?
percentage lean, the expected yield of the 4 lean cuts
what are factors affecting pork cutability?
amount of external fat present, degree of muscling evident in the carcass= muscle score and loin eye area