Cells are organized into tissues that perform specialized tasks and tissues, in turn, are grouped together to form whole organs.
Body fluids supply the tissues continuously with energy, oxygen, and nutrients, including water.
Timing of meals is important because the digestive tract is unable to digest food at certain times.
Some nutrients are stored in the body in much smaller quantities than others are.
Some vitamins are stored in the body without limit, even if they reach toxic levels.
Cells can best be described as:
self-contained living entities.
Among the cells' most basic needs are _____ and the oxygen with which to burn it.
The first principle of diet planning is that the foods we choose must provide energy and the essential nutrients including:
Which of the following determines the nature of the cell's work?
Cells lining the digestive tract replace themselves every
Which of the following cells normally replace themselves once every few years?
Which of the following types of cells do not reproduce, and if damaged by injury or disease, are lost forever?
The blood picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide in the:
When the pancreas detects a high concentration of the blood's sugar, glucose, it releases:
The nervous system's role in hunger regulation is coordinated by the:
Which of the following does not occur as part of the stress response?
The digestive system speeds up.
Which of the following are the first to defend the body tissues against invaders?
The condition of inflammation that tissues undergo when they become injured or irritated:
may involve loss of function of the affected body part.
Most people have aversions to _____ tastes.
The digestive tract needs _____, which provides the bulk against which the muscles of the colon can work.
The stomach's main function is the digestion of what nutrient?
The purpose of the villi and microvilli in the intestinal tract is to:
trap the nutrient particles and absorb them into the cells.
In cases of severe undernutrition, the small intestine will react by:
shrinking to a much smaller surface.
The major function of the kidneys is to:
excrete wastes from the body in urine.
The liver converts excess energy-containing nutrients into:
glycogen and fat.
Without food to replenish it, the liver's glycogen supply can be depleted within:
3 - 6 hours
The bones provide reserves of:
Cells are related to the nutrients we eat in foods because:
nutrients can effect how the genes in cells work.
A gene variation in the cells can occasionally cause an inborn error of metabolism. If this is discovered by a healthcare provider, the advice would be to:
eat a special diet that will minimize its potential harm to the body.
The importance of the lungs in the circulatory system is that they are responsible for:
adding oxygen to the blood.
Nutrients are delivered from the intestines through the circulatory system to the cells by:
transport through the blood to the liver for chemical altering to make them better suited for use by the tissues.
What is the role of the phagocytes and lymphocytes in protecting the body from invading organisms?
Killer T-cells seek out and destroy all foreign particles with the same identity.
Chronic, low-grade inflammation in chronic disease is of interest because:
it foretells of the risk of death from the disease.
Digestion of foods includes the mechanical actions of:
peristalsis waves to move the foods down through the digestive tract.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the timing of meals?
Timing of meals is important to feeling well.
Digestion of macronutrients begins in the mouth with enzyme action on:
starches by designated carbohydrates and fats by designated lipases.
The digestive juices in the digestive tract include:
pancreatic juice, which neutralizes stomach acids reaching the small intestine.
The vast majority of fat digestion takes place in the:
small intestine with lipases released by the gallbladder.
You have just consumed a meal very high in fat. As a result, hormonal messages will tell an organ to send _____ in amounts matched to the amount of fat present.
What are the major roles of the villi and microvilli in the small intestine?
The microvilli trap nutrients so the villi cells can absorb them.
Which of the following would occur in a malnourished child?
The absorptive surface of the small intestine would shrink.
Which of the following strategies should be used by someone experiencing heartburn?
Drink liquids an hour before or after meals and eat smaller meals.
If you are taking medications to treat the discomfort caused by heartburn, it is important to know that:
antacids will only temporarily relieve pain by neutralizing stomach acid for a while.
Which of the following advice would you give to a friend suffering from constipation?
Consume foods with adequate fiber and drink enough water.
Which of the following should be consumed at intervals throughout the day?
If you do not eat on a regular basis throughout the day, the effect on the body will be:
a coordinated effort to draw stored energy from various parts of the body.
Which of the following deliver(s) one-half ounce of ethanol?
5 ounces of wine and 12 ounces of beer
Which of the following organs makes almost all of the body's alcohol-processing machinery?
Although the recommendation is to drink in moderation if consuming alcohol, the following problem may still need to be considered:
moderation is difficult to define because of differences in tolerance among people.
A friend of yours is considering drinking one glass of wine a day because she has heard that it may reduce her risk of heart attack. What information would you provide for her?
in middle-aged populations, taking 1-2 drinks a day may benefit the heart.