Micro Quiz Ch 13

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Part A
The normal function of the PrP protein in mammals is believed to be:
a) assisting proteins in forming beta-pleated sheets.
b) assisting proteins in forming alpha-helices.
c) assisting in normal membrane development and function.
d) assisting in normal synaptic development and function

d) assisting in normal synaptic development and function

Part B
How do normal prion proteins (PrP) differ from the infectious prion proteins?
a) Normal PrP are found on mammals; infectious PrP are found on reptiles.
b) Normal PrP are found in all mammals; infectious PrP are found in only cows.
c) Normal PrP have alpha-helices; infectious PrP have beta-pleated sheets.
d) Normal PrP lack nucleic acid; infectious PrP have nucleic acid.

c) Normal PrP have alpha-helices; infectious PrP have beta-pleated sheets

Part C
How does the number of infectious prions increase?
a) Prions form multimers which can then form more single copies of the prion protein.
b) Prions transform normal proteins into the misfolded beta-pleated sheet configuration; therefore, prions multiply by conversion.
c) Prions reproduce by binary fission.
d) Prions reproduce by mitosis.

b) Prions transform normal proteins into the misfolded beta-pleated sheet configuration; therefore, prions multiply by conversion

Part D
Why are the beta-pleated multimers of PrP potentially pathogenic?
a) They are not detected by other organisms.
b) They are found on the surface of immune cells, resulting in damage to the immune system.
c) They repress the immune system.
d) The multimers are more stable and resistant to protease

d) The multimers are more stable and resistant to protease

Which of the following statements describes a generalist virus?
a) It can have several different types of genomes.
b) It does not cause disease in the organisms it infects.
c) It does not have a particular sequence of events in its life cycle.
d) It infects many kinds of cells in many different hosts

d) It infects many kinds of cells in many different hosts

Fungal viruses
a) are the most numerous type of virus.
b) have no extracellular state.
c) infect many food crops.
d) have been extensively studied

b) have no extracellular state

Conventional genetic analyses of prions involving rRNA sequences are impossible because
a) they are too small to be analyzed genetically.
b) they cannot be isolated in a pure form.
c) they do not contain rRNA.
d) they do not contain nucleic acids.

d) they do not contain nucleic acids.

Which of the following types of enzymes is necessary for the replication of most double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses?
a) cellular DNA polymerase
b) RNA-dependent RNA transcriptase
c) viral RNA polymerase
d) reverse transcriptase

a) cellular DNA polymerase

A phage T4 particle that has lost its tail fibers will have a replication cycle that is blocked at which of the following stages?
a) assembly
b) attachment
c) entry
d) synthesis

b) attachment

Which of the following is the midpoint of a lytic replication cycle?
a) release
b) attachment
c) entry
d) synthesis

d) synthesis

HeLa cells are regarded as a semistandard human tissue culture medium because
a) different strains have various kinds of genetic abnormalities.
b) they divide only a limited number of times before they die.
c) they are contaminated with egg proteins.
d) they are infected with contaminating bacteria

a) different strains have various kinds of genetic abnormalities

Part A
We sometimes are able to generate antibodies (immune system proteins) that bind to and cover up some of the proteins on the outermost portion of a virus while it is in the bloodstream. This renders the virus unable to reproduce. Which step of viral replication are antibodies directly preventing?
a) uncoating
b) attachment
c) assembly
d) synthesis

b) attachment

Part B
Enveloped viruses have a layer of lipids surrounding their capsid. This envelope is made mostly of host cell membrane. In which step does the virus acquire this envelope?
a) attachment
b) synthesis
c) assembly
d) release

d) release (Budding)

Part C
What occurs during viral uncoating?
a) The capsid breaks apart, releasing the viral genome.
b) The nucleic acid breaks apart, allowing for translation.
c) The viral envelope is released.
d) The viral proteins are synthesized

a) The capsid breaks apart, releasing the viral genome

Both viruses and carcinogenic chemicals can cause tumors by
a) slowing cellular growth.
b) disrupting cell division controls.
c) creating new cellular genes.
d) killing cells

b) disrupting cell division controls

Part A
From which phrase is the term "prions" derived?
a) Proteinaceous infectious particles
b) Protein infections
c) Particles of infection
d) Protein infection of the nervous system

a) Proteinaceous infectious particles

Part B
In what year did Stanley Prusiner discover prions?
a) 1979
b) 1982
c) 1997
d) 1928

b) 1982

Part C
Which disease did Stanley Prusiner first identify as being caused by prions?
a) Fatal familial insomnia
b) Kuru
c) Scrapie
d) Mad cow disease

c) Scrapie

Part D
How are prions different from other infectious agents?
a) They lack nucleic acid.
b) They lack protein.
c) They cause neurological disease.
d) They cannot replicate

a) They lack nucleic acid

Part A
How are viruses different from cells?
a) They do not contain genetic material.
b) They do not contain enzymes.
c) They do not contain protein.
d) They require a host in order to reproduce.

d) They require a host in order to reproduce

Part B
What is the function of the structural elements of a virus?
a) To package and protect the viral genome
b) To provide a source of energy for the virus
c) To use all of the cell proteins

a) To package and protect the viral genome

Which of the following is NOT represented in viral classification schemes?
a) class
b) genus
c) family
d) specific epithet

a) class

Lysozyme is important for which of the following stages of lytic replication in bacteriophage T4?
a) assembly
b) entry
c) entry and release
d) attachment

c) entry and release

In a plaque assay, a microbiologist counts 20 plaques on a plate. How many phage particles can be assumed to have been present in the original bacterium-virus mixture on the plate, if there was no dilution of the mixture prior to plating?
a) 40
b) 10
c) 20
d) 2

c) 20

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