Innervates the lateral rectus muscle
Cranial nerve VI
Innervates the superior oblique muscle
Cranial nerve IV
Innervates superior, inferior, and medial rectus and inferior oblique muscles
Cranial nerve III
-Red glow that appears to fill the person's pupil when first visualized through the opthalmoscope
-Light reflecting from the retina
Involuntary, rapid, rhythmic movement of the eyeball
What size should the pupil be?
Round & regular
Best vision is considered
Fine central vision
-Acuteness or clearness of vision
-Dependent on the sharpness of the retinal focus within the eye and the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain
-Uses a Snellen chart
-Described as 20/20 vision
Alphabet chart most commonly used and is an accurate measure of visual acuity
Snellen Eye Chart
Health history questions to be asked regarding eyes
-Vision difficulty (decreased acuity, blurring, blind spots)
-History of ocular problems
-Use of glasses and/or contact lenses
-Disparity of the eye axes
-Squint, crossed eye
What eternal eye structures should be inspected?
-General appearance of the eye
-Eyelids & lashes
-Conjunctiva and sclera
-Eversion of the upper lid
What anterior eye structures should be inspected?
-Cornea & lens
-Iris & Pupil
When inspecting the Iris & Pupil what should you look for
-Size & shape
-Pupillary light reflex
The cornea reflex is mediated by cranial nerves
V and VII
What are the retinal structures viewed through the ophthalmoscope
The examiner records "positive consensual light reflex." This is:
The simultaneous constriction of the other pupil when one eye is exposed to bright light
Several changes occur in the eye with the aging process. The thickening and yellowing of the lens is referred to as:
The cover test is used to assess for:
The six muscles that control eye movement are innervated by cranial nerves:
III, IV, VI
A person is known to be blind in the left eye. What happens to the pupils when the right eye is illuminated by a penlight beam?
Both pupils constrict
One cause of visual impairment in aging adults is:
Documentation of an eye examination can include the term PERRLA. What does this mean?
R: React (to)
L: Light (and)
Is the question appropriate for the aging adult:
"Do your eyes seem excessively moist?"
-Decreased tear production may occur with aging
Would a patient that answers yes to, "Do spots move in front of your eyes" elicit a medical emergency?