Antomy and Physiology Test 2 Written Part

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1) Identify the components of the lymphatic system, and describe the function of that system.

Lymphatic System:
Components and structure: collection of lymph nodes, lymph, lymphatic capillaries, spleen, tonsils, appendix, and thymus.
Main Function: To collect and transport tissue fluids from intercellular spaces in all the tissues of the body and back to the veins in the blood system.
There are also 6 other main Functions:
1) Fluids -- transportation of tissue fluids from intercellular spaces to veins
2) Fats -- transportation of digested fats from villi in small intestine through lacteals and lymph vessels to blood strem
3) Plasma -- returning plasma proteins to the bloodstream
4) Lymphocytes -- creation of lymphocytes
5) Defense -- defending against invading microorganisms and disease by removing and destroying them
6) Transportation -- moving large molecular compounds from their manufactured sites to the bloodstream

2)List four cardinal signs of inflammation, describe how they develop, and what benefits comes from the development of each sign.

The four cardinal signs of short term or acute inflammation:
-redness, swelling, heat, and pain.
How the develop: inflammatory response is triggered whenever body tissues are injured by physical trauma, intense heat, irritating chemicals, or infection by viruses, fungi, or bacteria.
What benefits come from the development of each sign:
-prevents the spread of damaging agents to nearby tissues
-disposes of cell debris and pathogens
-alerts the adaptive immune system
-sets the stage for repair

3) Describe the immunological mechanism of anaphylactic shock.

Anaphylactic shock occurs when the allergen directly enters the blood and circulates rapidly through the body. An example would be bee sting, spider bite, or injection of foreign substance. The mechanism of anaphylactic shock is essentially the same as that of local responses, but when mast cells and basophils are enlisted throughout the body, the outcome is life threatening. The bronchioles constrict making it difficult to breathe, and the sudden vasodilation and fluid loss from the blood stream may cause circulatory collapse and death within minutes. Epinephrine is the drug of choice to reverse these histamine-mediated effects. (795)

Compare the roles of Helper T cells and Cytotoxic T cells in immune reactions.

a. Helper T cells play a central role in adaptive immunity, without them there is no adaptive immune response. They activate B and T cells, and induce them to multiply. Cytotoxic T cells are also activated by Helper T cells. They are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells. Their main targets are virus-infected cells, buy they also attack tissue cells infected by certain intracellular bacteria or parasites, cancer cells, and foreign cells. Both protect the body against intruders.

Contrast antibody-mediated immunity with cell-mediated immunity.

Antibody-mediated immunity: It is present in bodys humors or fluids(blood, lymph). Though they are produced by lymphocytes, antibodies circulate freely in the blood and lymph, where they bind primarily to extracellular targets bacteria, bacterial toxins, and free viruses-inactivating them temporarily and marking them for destruction by phagocytes or complement.
Cell-mediated immunity: when lymphocytes themselves rather than antibodies defend the body. Living cells provide the protection. Cellular immunity has cellular targets-virus-infected or parasite-infected tissue cells, cancer cells, and cells foreign to grafts. The lymphocytes act against such targets either directly, by killing the infected cells or indirectly, by releasing chemicals that enhance the inflammatory response or activate other lymphocytes or macrophages.

9) Describe the benefits of vaccination.

-they spare us most of the symptoms and discomfort of the disease that would otherwise occur during the primary response.
-their weakened antigens provide functional antigenic determinants that are both immunogenic and reactive.
-vaccines expose people to antigens and stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies; memory cells. Since the primary response has already occurred, when the real antigen comes into the body, the body will respond with the secondary response. This is much more potent because there is no need for activation or co-stimulation; the B cell just quickly multiplies.After vaccination you are not only recieving just primary response, but secondary response.
-vaccinating stops the spread of disease.
and lowers soceitys cost to(pg. 780)

11) List and briefly describe the functions of the skin.

Protection: Skin is most vulnerable and is exposed: temp. extremes, abrasion, microorganisms. Physical, chemical, and biological barriers.
Body temperature regulation: body works best when temp. remains within homeostatic limits. As long as the external temp. is lower than body temp., the skin surface loses heat to the air and the coolor objects in the environment.
Cutaneous sensation: respond to stimuli arising outside the body.
Metabolic functions: vitamin D formation and calcium absorption.
Blood reservoir: dermal vascular supply hold about 5% of the bodys entire blood volume. When other body organs need a greater blood supply, the nervous system constricts the dermal blood vessels. This constriction shunts more blood into the general circulation, other body organs.
Excretion: body eliminates nitrogen containing waits in sweat. (pg 162-163)

12) How skin helps to regulate body temperature.

If a person is too warm, blood vessels dilate and sweat glands secrete a lot of sweat so that heat can easily be released from the body. When it is cold, dermal blood vessels constrict so that less heat is used up for the skin and the skin becomes colder, saving heat.

13) What is melanin, and how it helps us, what is ABCD system regarding malignant melanoma.

Dark pigment formed by cells called melanocytes imparts color to skin and hair.
How it helps us:
Prolonged sun exposure causes a substantial melanin buildup, which help protect the DNA of viable skin cells from UV radiation by absorbing the rays and dissipating the energy as heat.
ABCD rule:
Asymmetry: the two sides of the pigmented spot or mole do not match.
Border irregularity: the borders of the lesion exhibit indentations.
Color: the pigmented spot contains several colors.
Diameter: the spot is larger than 6mm in diameter.

14) How do we calculate how much of the skin surface was burned:

The rule of nine
Anterior and posterior head and neck 9%
Anterior and posterior upper limbs 18%
Anterior and posterior trunk 36%
Perineum 1%
Anterior and Posterior lower limbs 36%

15) List from top to the bottom the layers of epidermis, and dermis. Describe location of collagen and keratin.

List from top to the bottom the layer of epidermis:
stratum corneum,stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale
Papillary Layer
Reticular layer
Keratin: found in the epidermis, hair, and nails that makes those structures hard and water resistant.
Collagen: matrix of connective tissue

1.Can tattoos disappear with time.

When you look at a persons tattoo you see the ink from the epidermis. The epidermis is made from stratified squamous epithelium. The cells that populate the epidermis are keratinocytes and keratinocytes millions die and rub off every day, giving us a totally new epidermis every 25-45 days. The ink though that one sees is in the dermis. The dermis is the second major skin region, which is : strong, flexible connective tissue. The dermis does not renew itself like the epidermis. Tattooists use a machine that penetrates the skin and goes into the dermis. Over time, the body seals the dyes particles with a protective wall of collagen protein. So no tattoos cannot disappear with time unlike the epidermis, the dermis does not renew itself.

3)With radical mastectomy lymph nodes and vessels are removed from the armpit. Why is that done and why latter arm can get swollen?

Lymph nodes can also become secondary cancer sites, particulary when metastasizing cancer cells enter lymphatic vessels and become trapped there. Removal of lymph nodes from the armpit breaks the natural flow of lymph nodes. Without those lymph nodes pumping lymph fluid out of the arm, the arm may swell. (756)

5. Why would you use ABCD system on someone who has changing nevi.

Nevi/Nevus: are lesions on skin, also called birthmarks.
Considering the nevus is changing we apply the ABCD rule to recognize if it is melanoma. Melanoma can begin wherever there is pigment. The key to surviving melanoma is early detection. (165)

. Why cancers do not originate from stratum corneum.

The stratum corneum is composed of dead keratinocytes. Dead cells cannot undergo mitosis let alone cancer. Their only job is to form a protective dead layer and they shed quite easily. (154)

7. How do we calculate area of skin burned.

We can calculate the area of skin burned by using the rule of nines. This method divides body into 11 areas. Each 11 areas account for 9 percent of total body area, plus an additional area surrounding genitals for 1 percent body surface.

8. Does person with second degree burns will need a skin graft.

Second degree burns injure the epidermis and upper region of dermis. Symptoms mimic those of first degree burns, but blisters also appear. The burned area is red and painful, but skin regeneration occurs with little or no scarring within three to four weeks if care is taken to prevent infection. Person with second degree burns does not need skin graft. (pg.166)

9. Why in the area of infected wound person has swollen "gland", and how did they become swollen.

When large numbers of bacteria are trapped in the nodes, the nodes become inflamed, swollen, and tender to the touch, a condition often referred to as swollen glands. They became swollen when the lymph nodes are overwhelmed by the agent they are trying to destroy. (pg.756)

6) What is a function of WBC, where they develop, and how specific immune response starts.

White blood cells are cells of the immune system and they defend the body against infectious disease and foreign materials. White blood cells are formed in bone marrow. Specific immune response starts when lymphocytes find the antigens that they have been specialized for.

Why child with blood type A Rh+ is safe in uterus of a mother with blood type B Rh(+), but can be in danger in uterus of a mother with blood type A Rh(-).

When both the child/mother are the same Rh+ there is no need for antibodies to be made. A child with a blood type of A Rh(+) can be in danger in the uterus of a mother with blood type A Rh(-) due to the fact when bleeding occurs when the placenta detaches from the uterus, the mother may be sensitized by the baby's Rh(+) antigens that pass into her bloodstream. If so she will form anti-Rh antibodies. If the mother is treated and becomes pregnant again with an Rh+ baby, her antibodies will cross through the placenta and destroy the baby's RBCs, producing a condition known as hemolytic disease of newborn. (pg. 652)

explain how vaccination prevents illness.

Vaccination Is a way to trigger the bodys immune response without becoming sick. Vaccine contains weak or dead organisms that usually do not cause illness. The body is able to destroy the pathogen and the vaccine and produce memory cells. When the body develops immunity to a specific pathogen immunization has occurred. If the body is ever exposed to the same pathogen in the future the memory cells react quickly without a trial and error period. This allows the body to destroy the pathogen efficiently before it can cause illness.

How doctors can determine if illness is acute or person has immunity to a disease.

Doctor looks at your immunoglobulin's and checks the levels of them. If the blood has a lot of g, and higher than normal. So that means it's either chronic or you have immunity. But chronic is pain or not feeling well for a long time. Acute illness is responded by igM later igG. IgG can stay for a while, but IgM's go away quickly. If the inflammation lasts more than six months, it's chronic. If doctors see IgM's then you can produce memory cells, meaning you have immunity.

how and why serological conflict can develop.

Incompatibility in the Rh factor-Rh women with a partner who is Rh+ Group-. Threaten serological conflict, which can cause hemolytic disease of fetus. If the fetus developing in mother group inherit the fathers Rh- Rh antigen-who is Rh-plus-in case of leakage of fetal blood in pregnancy or childbirth of the mother, there is sensitization of fetal blood calls of pregnant mothers immune system produces antibodies directed against anti-Rh-fetal blood cells. -Serological conflict can significantly reduce the giving anti D immunoglobin. Serological conflict can also arise in the main groups A, B, and AB antigens.

How reduction of production and maturation of T cells can affect antibody formation and their levels in blood.

a. Helper T cells, which are one branch of T cells, give co-stimulation to B cells which makes them proliferate. The B cells will later become plasma cells which will produce antibodies. Without T cells, antibody formation and their levels in the blood would be much lower since B cells won't be around.

10) Describe using examples artificially and naturally acquired passive and active immunity.

When B cells encounter antigens and produce antibodies against them, its active immunity. This can happen through vaccines (artificial) or by getting a bacterial or viral infection (natural). Passive immunity differs from active immunity because readymade antibodies are introduced. As a result, your B cells are not challenged by antigens, immunological memory does not occur and the protection provided is only temporary. Breast milk is a natural example of antibodies being brought in from outside, while anti-venom is an artificial example.

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