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nucleus, cytoplasm, plasma membrane

three main regions of most cells, from deep to superficial

plasma membrane

phospholipid bi-layer with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties; embedded with proteins, carbohydrates and cholesterols (anatomy)

plasma membrane

barrier for cellular contents; functions as selective barrier for cell (physiology)

cholesterols

in plasma membrane, maintain fluidity of cell wall; solid at normal body temp, but fluid at decreased body temp

cytoskeleton

in plasma membrane, maintains general structure of the cell

carbohydrates

in plasma membrane, glycocalyx leaves a somewhat sticky surface to aid in cell recognition process

proteins

in plasma membrane, aid in passage into and out of cell; integral span through membrane, peripheral do not

ion channels

proteins in membrane that span it and allow passage into and out of cell

carriers

proteins in membrane that transport structures that would otherwise be impermeable to cell membrane

receptors

proteins in membrane that are cell recognition sites; insulin ______ sites bind the hormone insulin

identification markers

proteins in membrane that are used in antibody-antigen recognition

tissue

4 types: epithelium, muscle, connective, nervous

nervous tissue

used for internal communication; found in brain, spinal cord, and nerves

muscle tissue

contracts to cause movement; found attached to bone, in heart, and in hollow organ walls

epithelial tissue

forms boundaries betweens different environments, protects, secretes, absorbs, filters; AVASCULAR and have own nerves; regenerate quickly; found in lining of GI tract organs and other hollow organs and on skin surface

connective tissue

supports, protects, binds other tissues together; most abundant tissue in body; made up of extracellular matrix between living cells and has variations in blood supply; found in bones, tendons and fat and other soft padding

apical surface

epithelial cells always facing outward; most superficial layer of cells

basal surface

deepest layer of epithelial cells; rests on basement membrane

lateral surface

connecting points from cell to cell in epithelial tissue

basement membrane

A thin extracellular layer that commonly consists of two layers: Basal lamina-closer to and secreted by the epithelial cells also contains proteins (laminin, collagen, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans) Reticular lamina-contains collagen produced by connective tissue cells called fibroblasts; functions in cellular growth and would healing

simple squamous epithelium

functions in diffusion, filtration or secretion; not found in areas of high friction found in air sacs of lungs, in kidney glomeruli, lining of heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels and lining of serous membranes

simple cuboidal epithelium

functions in secretion and absorption; ciliated types propel mucus or reproductive cells; found in kidney tubules, on ovaries, and in secretory portions of small glands

simple columnar epithelium

functions in secretion and absorption; can contain goblet cells and/or be ciliated which serves to propel mucus or reproductive cells; found in digestive tract, gallbladder, and excretory ducts of some glands; ciliated found lining small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of uterus

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

functions in secretion and absorption; can have goblet cells and cilia; male's sperm carrying ducts and ducts of large glands; ciliated lines trachea and most of upper respiratory tract

stratified squamous epithelium

functions to protect underlying tissue from friction; keratinized forms epidermis of the skin; non-keratinized "wet" found lining esophagus, mouth and vagina

stratified cuboidal epithelium

functions in protection; found in largest ducts of sweat, mammary and salivary glands

stratified columnar epithelium

functions in protection and secretion; rare in body; small amounts in male urethra and in large ducts of some glands

transitional epithelium

functions by stretching readily and permitting distention without leaking; returns to original shape; found lining urinary bladder, ureters, and part of urethra

extracellular matrix

non-living material between living cells in connective tissue; composed of ground substance and fibers

osseous tissue

functions by protecting and supporting body, providing levers for muscles to act on, storing calcium and other minerals and fat, and forming blood cells in marrow; found in bones

hyaline tissue

functions to support and reinforce, has resilient cushioning properties, resists compressive stress; most common type of cartilage; found in larynx and entire fetal skeleton, costal cartilage of ribs, and ends of long bones in joints

fibrocartilage

compressible; found between vertebral discs, in pelvic connective tissue and in discs of knee joint

dense irregular connective tissue

able to withstand tension in many directions; provides structural strength; found in fibrous capsules of organs and joints, dermis of the skin and the submucosa of digestive tract

fibroblast

a large flat cell that secretes most of the extracellular matrix of areolar and dense connective tissue

dense regular connective tissue

functions to attach muscles to bones and muscles; attach bones to bones; withstand great tensile stress in one direction; found in tendons, ligaments and dermis

tendons

attach muscle to bone or muscle

ligaments

attach bone to bone

elastic connective tissue

allows recoil of tissue following stretching; maintains flow of blood through arteries; adds passive recoil of lungs; found in walls of large arteries, within certain ligaments assoc. with vertebral column, within walls of bronchial tubes, and in external ear

areolar tissue

functions to wrap and cushion organs; has macrophages that phagocytize bacteria; plays role in inflammation and conveying tissue fluid; found under epithelia of body; packaging organs; surrounding capillaries

reticular tissue

forms a soft internal skeleton (stroma) that supports white blood cells, mast cells, and microphages; found in lymphoid organs

adipose tissue

functions to insulate body, support and protect organs, and provide reserve fuel; found under skin, around kidneys and eyeballs and in abdomen, in breasts

vascular tissue

functions as transport vehicle for respiratory gases, nutrients, waste and other substances; found in blood vessels

skeletal muscle

functions to pull bones when contracting; under voluntary control; found attached to bone and occasionally to skin

cardiac muscle

functions to pump blood; under involuntary control; found only in the walls of heart

smooth muscle

functions to propel substances or objects along internal passageways; under involuntary control; found mostly in the walls of hollow organs

nervous tissue

functions to transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors; transmits to effectors and controls their activity; found in brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves

regeneration

tissue repair by replacing destroyed tissue- e.g. scab on epithelial tissue; epithelial, osseous and fibrous connective tissues are easily replaced this way

fibrosis

repairs tissue with dense connective tissue (scar tissue) ; cardiac muscle tissue and nervous tissue in the brain and spinal cord are often replaced this way

vitamin c

must be ingested orally; good for collagen repair and wound healing; a deficiency can result in scurvy

granulation

growth of new capillaries and rebuilding collagen fibers during tissue repair

cutaneous membrane

largest organ of the body; consists of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis

mucous membrane

lines interior body surfaces open to the outside; found in digestive tract, respiratory tract, and reproductive tract

serous membrane

lines some internal surfaces; has a parietal layer next to body wall, _______ fluid between layers, and a visceral layer next to organ; found in pleural cavity, pericardium, and peritoneal cavity

synovial membrane

enclose certain joints; are made of connective tissue only; are filled with ________ fluid

endocrine

glands that secrete their contents directly into the bloodstream

exocrine

glands that secrete their contents into a lumen or duct; includes mucus, sweat(sudoriferous) , oil(sebaceous) , earwax, saliva, and digestive enzymes

sudoriferous

glands that secrete sweat; consist of eccrine(body) and apocrine(armpits and genitalia)

sebaceous

glands that secrete oil; have ducts that empty into hair follicles or directly onto skin; acts as lubricant for skin, prevents brittle hair by decreasing water loss, and inhibits growth of some bacteria

eccrine

sudoriferous glands that open via ducts to pores on skin; produce clear sweat

apocrine

sudoriferous glands that empty into hair follicles in armpits and genitalia; produce milky sweat that contains fatty acids and proteins

basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum

layers of the epidermis, all beginning with stratum

stratum basale

deepest layer or epidermis; form the papillary; cells are undergoing mitosis constantly; merkel cells (light touch) are located in this layer

merkel cell

light touch receptor cell

stratum spinosum

2nd deepest layer of epidermis; appears to have spinelike thorns on examination; langerhan cells (immune) and melanocytes are located in this layer

stratum granulosum

3rd deepest layer of epidermis; consists of 3-5 layers of keratinocytes and is undergoing constant apoptosis; contains lamellar granules which secrete a rich sealant between layers

stratum lucidum

layer just below surface layer of skin; occurs only on palmar and plantar surfaces; thick layers of dead keratinocytes

stratum corneum

outermost layer of epidermis; very thin but thickens on palms and soles; 25 to 30 layers of dead keratinocytes

epidermis, dermis, hypodermis

skin layers from superficial to deepest

dermis

composed of dense connective tissue; has upper papillary layer with pain and touch receptors and deepest reticular layer with blood vessels, sweat and oil glands and deep pressure receptors

hypodermis

deepest layer; not technically skin; anchors skin to underlying tissue; composed of mostly adipose; sub-Q injection site

melanin

yellow, brown or black pigments

carotene

orange-yellow pigment; can be found in carrots and tomatoes

hemoglobin

red coloring from blood cells in dermal capillaries; oxygen content determines extent of red coloring in blood; low oxygen manifests in blue coloring- cyanosis

cyanosis

blue skin/sclera/nails resulting from inability of red blood cells to carry oxygen

erythema

redness due to embarrassment, inflammation, hypertension, fever or allergy

pallor

blanching due to emotional stress such as fear, anemia, low blood pressure, or impaired blood flow to an area

jaundice

yellowing from a liver disorder

bruise

injured vessels of the skin or muscle tissue

hematoma

blood clot

epidermal

healing process that occurs following superficial wounds; "good as new"

deep

healing process that occurs when an injury extends to the dermis and subcutaneous layer; loss of function and development of scar tissue is expected

burn

tissue damage caused by excessive heat, electricity, radioactivity, or corrosive chemicals that denature the proteins in skin cells; assoc. with dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and circulatory shock

first degree burn

involves only epidermis; no blistering, only redness and mild pain; skin functions remain intact

second degree burn

involves epidermis and part of dermis; redness, blistering, edema and pain

third degree burn

destroys epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer; burn is grey-white, or black; skin is numb because nerve endings have been destroyed; most skin functions are lost

fourth degree burn

burn to the bone; deadly

25

considered critical if over ___ percent of body has 2nd degree burns

10

considered critical if over ___ percent of body has 3rd degree burns

face, hands, or feet

considered critical if there are 3rd degree burns on...

rule of nines

body is divided into 11 areas, each representing about 9% of total surface area; helps to determine extent of body burns

athlete's foot

tinea pedis; caused by fungal infection

bacterial infection

boils, carbuncles, and impetigo are cause by staphylococcus aureus, a __________ __________

contact dermatitis

exposures that cause allergic reaction

cold sores

caused by herpes simplex

psoriasis

triggered by trauma, infection, stress; cause is unknown; manifests as chunks of scaly skin

basal cell carcinoma

most common and least malignant type of cancer; arises from stratum basale; looks like light colored mole

squamous cell carcinoma

will metastasize to lymph nodes if not removed; arises from stratum spinosum; believed to be caused by sun damage

malignant melanoma

cancer of melanocytes; characterized by asymmetry, border irregularity, color, and diameter (ABCD rule)

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