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Chapters (1-5, 8-12)

An organ, such as the liver, is composed of

Tissues

Which of these is an organ system?

Digestive

What are the two main types of cells?

Prokaryotes and eukaryotes

An example of stimulus that a plant would respond to is:

Sunlight

Which of the following things would be considered complex and organized?

Red blood cell in the human body

DNA is a molecule that directly allows a living thing to

Store information

The process of homeostasis is:

How organisms maintain a relatively constant internal environment.

Living systems need energy to:

-Replace worn-out parts and build new parts.
-Grow larger.
-Help maintain a relatively constant internal environment

The complexity of living systems

is also highly organized

Identify a characteristic that is representative of some, but not all, life-forms.

Movement over great distances.

Which of the following is an example of discovery science?

Observing what other students in your class are wearing.

Which of the following is an example of hypothesis-driven science?

Testing whether or not dead batteries are preventing a TV remote from working.

Prokaryotic cells are found in the domain(s)

Bacteria and Archae

In the five-kingdom system, prokaryotes are placed in the kingdom

Monera

A human is classified in domain______ and kingdom _____.

Eukarya and Animalia

A rose bush is classified in domain____ and kingdom_____.

Eukarya and Plantae

In the five-kingdom system, which kingdom consists primarily of unicellular eukaryotes?

Protista

In the two-kingdom system, why were fungi classified in the kingdom Plantae?

They are sedentary

There is ___ eukaryotic domain.

one

Which of these refers to atoms with the same atomic number but different atomic masses?

These atoms are isotopes

A ____ refers to two or more atomd held together by covalent bonds.

molecule

The innermost electron shell of an atom can hold up to____electrons.

2

Which of these relationships is true of an uncharged atom?

The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons.

What determines the types of chemical reactions that an atom participated in?

The number of electrons in the outermost electron shell.

Atoms with the same number of protons but different electrical charges

are different ions

In salt(NaCL) what is the nature of the bond between sodium and chlorine?

Ionic

An ionic bond involves

an attraction between ions of opposite charge.

What name if given to the bond between water molecules?

Hydrogen bond

The unequal sharing of electrons within a water molecule makes the water molecule

polar

The tendency of an atom to pull electrons toward itself is referred to as its

electronegativity

In a neutral solution the concentration of

hydrogen ions is greater than the concentration of hydroxide ions.

What is dehydration synthesis?

The process of linking monomers; The removal of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom to form water.

Glycogen is:

a polysaccharide found in animals

Glucose+Glucose>>____by_____

Maltose+Water (dehydration synthesis)

Which of these is a polysaccharide?

cellulose

______ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth.

Cellulose

Which of these is not a lipid?

RNA

A function of cholesterol that does not harm health is its role...

as a component of animal cell membranes.

Protein are polymers of

amino acids

What type of bond joins the monomers in a proteins primary structure?

peptide

The secondary structure of a protein results from

hydrogen bonds

Tertiary structure is not directly dependent on

peptide bonds( Primary structure is)

If a strand of DNA has the nitrogen base sequence 5'ATTTGC'3, what will be the sequence of the matching strand?

3'TAAACG'5

If DNA double helix is 100 nucleotide pairs long and contains 25 adenine bases, how many guanine bases does it contain?

75 (200-50/2)

The two strands of a DNA double helix are held together by___ that form between pairs of nitrogenous bases.

hydrogen bonds

A nucleotide is composed of a

-Phosphate group
-Nitrogen-containing base
-five-carbon sugar

Cellulose is..

Made with glucose that has the beta ring form.

Glycogen--

occurs in animal cells and has branches.

Which fact is most important in explaining why cellulose is better structural material than starch?

Alpha-linkages make it easier for the polymer to coil into a helix.

A cotton shirt is chemically most similar to a

sugar cube

The presence of many C-C and C-H bonds causes fats to be

-rich in energy
-insoluble in water

In fat synthesis,______ and fatty acids combine to make fats plus_____.

Glycerol; water

In the reaction that builds a fat __ groups react with_____ groups.

Hydroxyl; carboxyl

Fats vary with respect to the number of

-hydrocarbon tails
-C atoms in the tains
- Double bonds in the tails

A food company hydrogenated a barrel of fat. The treatment

made fat less fluid.

The most unsaturated fats have

the most double bonds.

What DNA, proteins, and fats have in common?

Carbonyl groups

What do fats, steroids, and waxes have in common?

-Moderate polarity
-Low solubility in water
-They occur in membranes

Dr. Haxton told one of his students, "To move in the bloodstream, fats need the help of phospholipids" What would a good student say?

Correct. Nonpolar molecules aren't compatible with water.

What does cholesterol have in common with sex hormones?

Four linked rings.

For good health you dont want your body to run the LDL faster than the HDL because

LDL cholesterol is stored;HDL cholesterol is destroyed.

Which of these does NOT contain a structural protein?

ovalbumin

DNA is composed of building blocks called

nucleotides

Dna has the appearance of a

double helix

Which statement is true of polymers?

They are always made of monomers.

The organic molecule called DNA is an example of

a polymer made of nucleotides

Phospholipids are most important for

preventing leakage from cells

To find the best source of phospholipids look at

membranes.

What do phosphoglycerides and fats have in common?

Ester linkages.

Which statement is true of phospholipids?

-Their synthesis uses fatty acids
-Some of their tails have double bonds
-They all ionize

Which fact is most important in causing phospholipids to behave as they do in water?

Water molecules make hydrogen bonds

In a membrane, the____ of the phospholipids in one monalayer face the_____ of the phospholipids in the other monalayer.

Tails; tails

It is difficult for molecules to pass through the phospholipid bilayer because

polar molecules attract one another

Which lipid is most amphipathic?

Phospholipid

Which plant cell organelle converts chemical fuel into packets of chemical energy that can power the cell?

Mitochondrion

The plant cell wall

is a protective structure made of cellulose fibrils.

Which of the following is a function of the central vacuole?

Storing compounds produced by the cell

___ are found only in plant cells, but___ are found in both plant and animal cells.

Central vacuoles; ribosomes

The structural framework in a cell is the

cytoskeleton

Where in a cell is ATP made?

Mitochondria

What carries instructions for making proteins from the nucleus into the cytoplasm?

mRNA

One of the ways smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) differs from rough endoplasmic reticulum is that rough ER is covered by

ribosomes

Which of the following is part of the endomembrane system?

Golgi apparatus

Which of the following organelles breaks down worn-out organelles?

lysosomes

Where are lipids made in the cell?

smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

What structure acts as a selective barrier, regulating the traffic of materials into and out of the cell?

plasma membrane

In eukaryotic cells the first step in protein synthesis is the

transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA

Function of nucleus

stores genetic information of the cell

Lysosome

breaks down macromolecules using digestive enzymes

Mitochondrion

converts chemical fuel into packets of chemical energy that can power the cell

Ribosome

works with mRNA to synthesize proteins

Smooth ER

site of lipid synthesis

Golgi apparatus

modifies and packages proteins

Diffusion

the movement of particles down their concentration gradient.

Osmosis

passive transport of water

Exocytosis

A vesicle inside the cell fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents outside of the cell.

Endocytosis

The plasma membrane forms a pocket that pinches inward, forming a vesicle that contains material from outside the cell

Active transport

Requires energy from the cell. Molecules move against their concentration gradient

Gametes are produced by

meiosis

Normal human gametes carry __ chromosomes.

23

A diploid organism whose somatic cells each contain 32 chromosomes produces gametes containing ____ chromosomes.

16

Bacteria divide by

binary fission

What must happen before a cell can begin mitosis?

The chromosomes must be duplicated.

The centrosomes move away from each other and the nuclear envelope breaks up during which phase of mitosis?

Prophase (Centrosomes begin moving toward opposite poles and the nuclear envelope breaks up)

The chromosomes line up in the center of the cell during which phase of mitosis?

Metaphase (Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell)

The sister chromatids separate and begin moving toward opposite poles of the cell during which phase of mitosis?

Anaphase (Sister chromatids separate and start their migration toward opposite poles)

The chromosomes arrivee at the poles and nuclear envelopes form during which phase of mitosis?

Telophase (The nuclear envelopes of the two new cells form)

At the end of the mitotic phase, the cytoplasm divides in a process called

Cytokinesis

Mitosis interphase

cells divide replicate their DNA

Mitosis prophase

microtubles form the mitotic spindle, and the nuclear envelope breaks up.

Mitosis metaphase

Chromosomes line up in the center of the cell.

Mitosis anaphase

sister chromatids separate and become full-fledged chromosomes that move to opposite poles

Mitosis telophase

Nuclear envelopes form, cytokinesis.

Nucleoli are present during

interphase

Cytokinesis often, but not always, accompanies

Telophase

Chromosomes become visible during

prophase

Meiosis starts with a single diploid cell and produces

four haploid cells

A cell preparing to undergo meiosis duplicates its chromosomes during

interphase (Chromosomes duplicate)

During prophase I of meiosis

homologous chromosomes stick together in pairs.

The correct order of events during meiosis is

-prophase I
-metaphase I
-anaphase I
- telophase I
- cytokinesis
-meiosis II

During meiosis, segments of nonsister chromatids can trade places. This recombination of maternal and paternal genetic material is a key feature of meiosis. During what phase of meiosis does recombination occur?

Prophase I (Segments of nonsister chromatids trade places, resulting in recombination)

Monohybrid cross

genetic cross involving parents that differ in a single character

Alleles

gene alternate

Dominant allele

version of a gene that is expressed in the organism

Recessive allele

version of the gene that is not expressed in the organism

Phenotype

physical traits of an organism

genotype

genetic makeup of an organism

Mendel formulated his principles of inheritance based on

observations on the outcomes of breeding experiments. The underlying processes were unknown at the time.

Mendel observed that pair of alleles were separated or segregated in gametes and that they were rejoined in fertilization. We know that pairs of ___________ are segregated in _________ and then are rejoined through fertilization

homologous chromosomes....meiosis

As we now understand it, the Law of Independant Assortment applies

to pairs of genes that are on different chromosomes, but NOT to pairs of genes that are close together on the same chromosome.

How have Mendel's law fared as we have learned more about cell biology and processes such as meiosis?

Our new knowledge has helped to explain some of the exceptions to Mendel's laws of inheritance.

Which of these correctly illustrates the pairing of DNA and RNA nucleotides?

GTTACG
CAAUGC

The direction of synthesis of RNA transcript is

5'>>>>>3'

The tRNA anticodon, GAC, is complementary to the mRNA codon with the sequence

CUG

The initiator tRNA attached at the ribosome's __ site

P

How do mutations affect an organism?

-They may cause the development of a disease-causing allele
-They may cause the development of a more beneficial allele
- They, in some cases, may have no noticeable affect

DNA replication occurs at an unbelievably fast rate. Once replication is complete, we can expect to find a ____ number of mistakes

small

A female that is planning to become pregnant is concerned about her exposure to environmental mutagens which may have caused DNA mutations. In order for these mutations to become heritable, they must affect

her egg cells

Which of the following would indicate a base pairing mutation in DNA?

G paired with a T

In a DNA double helix an adenine of one strand always pairs with a_______ of the complimentary strand, and a guanine of one strand always pairs with a _____ of the complementary strand.

Thymine....cytosine

Which of these is a difference between DNA and RNA?

DNA is double-stranded, whereas RNA is single-stranded

Which of these nitrogenous bases is found in DNA but not RNA?

Thymine

RNA nucleotides contain______ than DNA nucleotides.

more oxygen

Which statement helps to explain how DNA stores hereditary information?

DNA contains four kinds of nitrogenous bases.

DNA and mRNA differ with respect to

the kind of sugar they contain.

Which of the following builds new strands of DNA?

DNA polymerases

Which statement about DNA replication is correct?

The leading strand is built continuously, and the lagging strand is built in pieces.

During DNA replication, which nucleotide will bind to an A nucleotide in the parental DNA?

T

The molecule that seals the gaps between the pieces of DNA in the lagging strand is

DNA ligase

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