Nutrients Involved in Energy Metabolism and Blood Health

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fat soluble

A,D,E,K; These vitamins are "_____ soluble"

water soluble

Folate, biotin, pantothenic acid, C, Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin, Pyidoxine (B3); These nutrients are "____ soluble"

vitamins and minerals

_____ and ____ are required for proper metabolism; but do not directly provide energy; are neccessary for obtaining energy from the macronutrients; often function as COENZYMES

enzymes

a protein that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction; are required for all metabolic reactions

coenzymes

a molecule that combines with an enzyme to facilitate enzyme function; some metabolic reactions require these

B-complex vitamins

these vitamins are especially important for energy metabolism; include thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2) niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin

thiamin

aka vitamin B1; required for carbohydrate metabolism, coenzyme for the metabolism of some fatty acids, enriched foods and whole grains are good sources of this; BERIBERI results if deficient (muscle wasting and nerve damage)

riboflavin

aka vitamin B2; is part of coenzymes involved in oxidation-reduction reactions; is part of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase; milk is a good source of riboflavin; ARIBOFLAVINOSIS: sore throat, swollen mucous membranes

niacin

aka nicotinamide and nicotinic acid; coenzyme assisting with metabolism of carbohydrates and fatty acids; good sources: meat, fish, poultry, enriched bread products; toxicity may occur; PELLAGRA: severe niacin deficiency

Vitamin B6

aka peridoxine; group of 6 related compounds; part of a coenzyme for more than 100 enzymes in aminoi acid metabolism; good sources: enriched cereals, meat, fish, poultry, starchy vegetables; toxicity from supplements can result in NERVE DAMAGE, SKIN LESIONS

folate

a b-complex vitamin; involved in DNA synthesis, amino acid metabolism; critical for cell division of very early embryos; good sources: ready-to-eat cereals, enriched bread products; toxicity can mask vitamin B12 deficiency

Vitamin B12

aka cobalamin; blood formation; required for nerve functioning, homocysteine breakdown, found only in animal-based foods; deficiency results in anemia, low energy, fatigue, shortness of breath, and can lead to pernicious anemia

pantothenic acid

a b-complex vitamin, component for fatty acid metabolism; required for building new fatty acids, good sources: chicken, beef, egg yolk, potatoes, oat cereals, tomato products, ; NO TOXICITY FROM EXCESS; DEFICIENCIES RARE

biotin

a b-complex vitamin; part of metabolism of carbs, fat, proteins; important for gluconeogenesis; biotin content has been determined for very few foods, deficiency symptoms include hair thinning, loss of hair color, red rash on face

antioxidants

compounds that neutralize free radicals that can cause oxidative stress and cell damage; examples: vitamins C and E, selenium, phytochemicals (carotenoids, flavonoids)

free radicals

damage from 'free_____s" contribute to: heart disease, cancer, aging, diabetes, arthritis, macular degeneration, cataracts

choline

a vitamin-like substance that assists in homocystein metabolism, accelerates the synthesis of acetylcholin (neurotransmitter) good sources: milk, liver, eggs, peanuts; deficiency can lead to fat accumulation in the liver; toxicity from supplements

iodine

a trace mineral that is critical for the synthesis of thyroid hormones; thyroid hormones regulate body temperature and resting metabolic rate; good source: saltwater fish, shrimp, iodized salt, milk, and dairy products

chromium

a trace mineral; assists insulin as it transports glucose from the blood into the cells; very little of this in the body; good sources: mushrooms, prunes, dark chocolate, nuts, whole grains; deficiency inhibits glucose absorption by body cells

manganese

a trace mineral; involved in energy metabolism; part of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase; good sources: whole-grain foods, brown rice, pineapple, pine nuts, okra, spinach; toxicity impairs the nervous system causing spasms and tremors

sulfur

a major mineral component of thiamin and biotin required for detoxification of alcohol and drugs by the liver; found in a few amino acids, sufficient sulfur is synthesized from the protein in our diets

blood

the only fluid tissue in the body; transports oxygen and nutrients to cells; removal of wastes from tissues

vitamin k

a fat-soluble vitamin; coenzyme for the synthesis of proteins involved in blood clotting; healthful intestinal bacteria produce some of this vitamin; good sources: green leafies; deficiencies can result in diseases that disturb absorption of fats

iron

a trace mineral; a component of the protein homoglobin which carrier oxygen in RBCs; a component of myoglobin which carries oxygen in muscle cells,, involved in energy metabolism of carbs, fats, proteins; can be stored in the body as FERRITIN AND HOMOSIDERIN in the liver, bone marrow, intestinal mucosa, spleen.

heme iron

type of iron found in animal based foods and more absorbable

non-heme iron

not easily absorbed

zinc

a trace mineral; for hemoglobin producted, development and function of immune system; women 8mg/day...men 11 mg/day; red meats, some seafood, whole grains, enriched grains/cereals

copper

900 mg/day; found in organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds, whole grain foods; too much copper: intestinal pain/cramps, nausea vomiting, liver damage; deficiency: rare, anemia, reduced WBCs, osteoporosis in childen

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