microbiology chapter 6

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Host cells of viruses include:
a. Human and other animals
b. Protozoa and algae
c. Plants and fungi
d. All of the choices are correct
e. Bacteria

all of the choices are correct

A _____ is the protein shell around the nucleic acid core of a virus:
a. Capsid
b. Spike
c. Monolayer
d. Envelope
e.Capsomere

capsid

A common method for cultivating viruses in the lab is to use in vitro systems called _____ cultures:
a. Bacteriophage
b. Embryo
c. Egg
d. Cell
e. Plaque

cell

Helical and icosahedral are terms used to describe the shapes of a virus:
a. Spike
b. Capsid
c. Envelope
d. Capsomere
e. Core

capsid

A naked virus only has a(n):
a. Antigenic surface
b. Envelope
c. Capsomere
d. Nucleocapsid
e. Capsid

nucleocapsid

Which of the following is a type of cytopathic effect?
a. Cells round up
b. All of the choices are correct
c. Inclusions in the cytoplasm
d. Inclusions in the nucleus
e. Multinucleated giant cells

all of the choices are correct

Persistent viruses that can reactivate periodically are:
a. Chronic latent viruses
b. Cytiopathic
c. Oncoviruses
d. Inclusion bodies
e. Syncytia

Chronic latent viruses

In general, most DNA viruses multiply in the host cell's _____, while most RNA viruses multiply in the host cell's _____
a. Cytoplasm, cell membrane
b. Nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum
c. Cell membrane, cytoplasm
d. Cytoplasm, nucleus
e. Nucleus, cytoplasm

Nucleus, cytoplasm

One of the principal capsid shapes is a 20-sided figure with 12 evenly spaced corners referred to as a(n) _____ capsid:
a. Complex
b. Spiked
c. Helical
d. Buckeyball
e. Icosahedral

Icosahedral

Infectious naked strands of RNA that affect plants are called:
a. Phages
b. Oncogenic viruses
c. Prions
d. Viroids
e. Spikes

Viroids

Viral spikes:
a. Bind viral capsid and envelope together
b. Are always present on enveloped viruses
c. All of the choices are correct
d. Allow bacteria to evade host defenses
e. Are derived from host proteins

Are always present on enveloped viruses

Viruses with _____ sense RNA contain the correct message for translation, while viruses with _____ sense RNA must first be converted into a correct message:
a. Secondary, primary
b. Primary, secondary
c. Positive, negative
d. Negative, positive
e. None of the choices are correct

Positive, negative

The process of dissolving the envelope and capsid to release the viral nucleic acid is:
a. Uncoating
b. Synthesis
c. Adsorption
d. Assembly
e. Penetration

Uncoating

Which of the following is incorrect about prophages?
a. Formed when viral DNA enters the bacterial chromosome
b. Cause lysis of host cells
c. Replicated with host DNA and passed on to progeny
d. Occur when temperate phages enter host cells
e. Present when the virus is in lysogeny

Cause lysis of host cells

In transduction, the viral genome:
a. Is replicated in the cytoplasm
b. Initiates lysis of the host
c. Includes DNA from the previous host
d. Is replicated in the nucleus
e. None of the choices are correct

Includes DNA from the previous host

New, nonenveloped virus release occurs by:
a. Exocytosis
b. Lysis
c. Budding
d. Both lysis and budding
e. Both budding and exocytosis

lysis

Viruses that infect bacteria are specifically called:
a. Bacteriophages
b. All of the choices infect bacteria
c. Satellite viruses
d. Viroids
e. Prions

bacteriophages

During lysogeny, an inactive prophage state occurs when the viral DNA is inserted into the:
a. Host DNA
b. Host nucleolus
c. Host cytoplasm
d. Host cell membrane
e. Host nucleus

host DNA

The activation of a prophage is called:
a. Lysogeny
b. Induction
c. Adsorption
d. Activation
e. Transformation

induction

When a bacterium acquires a trait from its temperate phage, it is called:
a. Lysogenic conversion
b. Viral persistence
c. Translation
d. Transcription
e. Transformation

Lysogenic conversion

Visible, clear, well-defined patches in a monolayer of virus-infected cells in a culture are called:
a. Cytopathic effects
b. Budding
c. Pocks
d. Plaques
e. Lysogeny

plaque

Infectious protein particles are called:
a. Phages
b. Oncogenic viruses
c. Viroids
d. Spikes
e. Prions

prions

Creutzfeld-Jacob disease is:
a. Caused by a viroid
b. Initiated by an oncogenic virus
c. A spongiform encephalopathy of humans
d. Caused by a chronic latent virus
e. Also called mad cow disease

A spongiform encephalopathy of humans

Satellite viruses are:
a. Significant pathogens of plants
b. The cause of spongiform encephalopathies
c. Dependent on other viruses for replication
d. Also called viroids
e. All of the choices are correct

Dependent on other viruses for replication

Viral nucleic acids include which of the following:
a. Double stranded DNA
b. Double stranded RNA
c. Single stranded DNA
d. Single stranded RNA
e. All of the choices are correct

all of the choices are correct

Virus capsids are made from subunits called:
a. Peplomers
b. Prophages
c. Spikes
d. Envelopes
e. Capsomeres

Capsomeres

Which of the following will not support viral cultivation?
a. Primary cell cultures
b. Embryonated bird eggs
c. Live lab animals
d. All of the choices will support viral cultivation
e. Continuous cell cultures

All of the choices will support viral cultivation

The envelope of enveloped viruses is:
a. Only compose of host endomembrane
b. Is obtained by viral budding or exocytosis
c. None of the choices are correct
d. Identical to the host plasma membrane
e. Always includes spikes

Is obtained by viral budding or exocytosis

The core of every virus particle always contains:
a. Either DNA or RNA
b. DNA
c. DNA and RNA
d. Capsomeres
e. Enzymes

Either DNA or RNA

Which of the following is not a typical capsid shape?
a. Helical
b. All of the choices are capsid shapes
c. Tetrahedral
d. Complex
e. Icosahedron

Tetrahedral

The correct sequence of events in viral multiplication is:
a. Assembly, synthesis, uncoating, release, penetration, adsorption
b. Uncoating, penetration, synthesis, assembly, absorption, release
c. Penetration, uncoating, synthesis, adsorption, assembly, release
d. Adsorption, release, synthesis, uncoating, assembly, penetration
e. Adsorption, penetration, uncoating, synthesis, assembly, release

Adsorption, penetration, uncoating, synthesis, assembly, release

Mammalian viruses capable of starting tumors are:
a. Syncytia
b. Inclusion bodies
c. Chronic latent viruses
d. Cytopathic
e. Oncoviruses

Oncoviruses

Which of the following is not associated with every virus?
a. Nucleic acid
b. Envelope
c. Capsomeres
d. Genome
e. Capsid

Envelope

Host range is limited by:
a. Type of host cell receptors on cell membrane
b. Type of nucleic acid in the virus
c. Size of the host cell
d. All of the choices are correct
e. Age of the host cell

Type of host cell receptors on cell membrane

Viruses attach to their hosts via:
a. Viral flagella
b. Host glycoproteins
c. Host phospholipids
d. Viral phospholipids
e. All of the choices are correct

Host glycoproteins

Viruses that cause infection resulting in alternating periods of activity with symptoms and inactivity without symptoms are called:
a. Delta agents
b. Oncogenic
c. Prions
d. Latent
e. Viroids

latent

The primary purposes of viral cultivation are:
a. All of these
b. to do detailed research on viral structure, lifestyle, genetics and effects on host cells
c. to prepare viruses for vaccines
d. to isolate and identify viruses in clinical specimens

All of these

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