The proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations
the suggestion that the presence of water could accelerate the growth of bread mold is an example of?
in science a hypothesis can only be useful if it can be?
the variable in an expirement we control
to be able to test one another's investigations
why do scientists publish the details of important expirements?
a well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
when enough expiremental data supports a hypothesis, the hypothesis become a ?
they are made up of cells,reproduce,have dna, respond to their enviroment, and they change over time
what do living things share?
seperate roles for each type of cell in a multicellular organism
perform particular functions within an organism
cell specialization in multicellular organisms allows cells to ?
the process by which living things maintain their stable enviroment
what is the basic unit of measurement in the metric system
a group of cells
what are the three particles that make up atoms?
if a chlorine atom has 17 protons and 18 neutrons its called?
a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in defenite proportions
electrons that are available to form bonds
what is the most abundant compound in most living things?
mixture of water and non disolved materials
any compound that produces hydroxide ions in a solution and is on the bottom half of the ph scale
any compound that produces hydroxide ions in a solution and is on the upper half of the ph scale
basic or alkaline solutions
solutions that contain concentrations of h+ lower than pure water are what?
single sugar molecule
a compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxegyn molecules
what organic compound is the main source of energy for living things?
the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical
the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
a process of chemicals that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction
it lowers the activation energy
what do catalyst do to the activation energy in a chemical reaction?
contains the combined portions of a planet in which all life exists, including land, water, and air, or atmosphere
a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
assemblage of different populations that live together in a define area
a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical enviroment
a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities
a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy and food supply
give and example of an organism at the beggining of the food chain
autotrophs that make their own food
organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply
organisms that break down organic matter
produce their own food
autotrophs that rely on energy within chemical bonds of inorganic molecues such as hydrogen sulfide
obtain energy by eating plants
eat both plants and animals
links all food chains in an ecosystem together
each step in a food web or food chain
a pyramid of numbers illustrates the ------- of individual organism at each level
how much percent of energy can be passed on to the next trophic level
10% of energy is passed on to each trophic level, what eliminates the rest of it
the cycle of water on the ground to water in the air, condensation and to rain, precipitation
nitrogen fixation is carried out primarily by?
energy flows in one direction and the nutrients recycle
compare the movement of energy and nutrients through living systems
matter can be cycled through the biosphere
what does biogeochemical cycling ensure
the rate at which organic matter is created by producers
what is most likely going to be a limiting nutrient in a freshwater pond?
a single nutrient that is scarce or cycles very slowly
the average, year after year conditions of temperature and percipitation in a particular region
what happends to the cool air over the poles?
the biological influences on organisms within an ecosystem
physical, or nonliving, factors that shape the ecosystem
the number of predators in an ecosystem
give an example of a biotic factor that affects the population size in an ecosystem
the full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism livesand the way in which the organism uses those conditions
when one member of the association benefits and the other is niether helped nor harmed
both species benefit from the relationship
an interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on the other organism
when one organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it
what type of relationship exsists between a flower and the insect that feeds on its pollen
the series of predictable changes that occurs in a community over time
occurs on land that has been abondoned
depth, flow, temperature, and chemistry of the overlying water
the chemistry of an aquatic ecosystem is determined by ?
the upper lit layer of the ocean
who was one of the first people to identify cork cells?
states that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. and new cells are produced from exsisting cells
all living things
what does the cell theory apply to?
reveals details 1000 times smaller than light microscopes
nucleus and specialized cells
prokaryotes lack what two things?
bacteria is an example of a what?
cells that contain a nucleus
dna, codded instructions for making protiens, and important molecules
what 3 things are found in a nucleus?
organelle that converts the chemical energy in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
helps the cell maintain its shape
what is the function of the cytoskeleton?
fibers of carbhydrates and protiens
what is the cell wall made of?
what organisms have a cell wall?
regulates what ever goes in and out of the cell and also provides support and protection
what is the function of the cell membrane?
when particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
they will continue to move accross the cell membrane in both directions
when the concentration of molecules on both sides of the membrane, the molecules will?
the process of cells developing in different ways to perform different tasks
produce compuonds such as insulin
contract and relax to move parts of the body
red blood cells
transport oxegyn throughout the body
many groups of tissues working together
organisms that obtain energy from the food they obtain
adenine, ribose, and 3 phosphate groups
what does atp consist of?
all types of cells
what does atp provide energy for?
what is the equation for photosynthesis
light absorbing molecules that gather the suns energy
what color of the visible light does chlorophyll not absorb, thus reflect?
the region outside the thylakoid membranes
saclike photosynthetic membranes
in the chloroplasts
where is chlorophyll found
light and h2o
what are the products of light dependant reactions
photosystem II absorbs light
what happens in the beggining step of photosynthesis?
C02, ATP, NADPH
what are the products of the calvin cycle?
water, temperature, and light
what are the factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis?
ask a question, form a hypothesis, procedure, record and analyze results, and draw conclusion
list the steps of the scientific method.
A biome is identified by its particular set of abiotic factors and its what?
who was one of the first people to identify and see cork cells?
all living things
who does the cell theory apply to?
protein synthesis, muscle contractions, and active transport
when ATP releases energy, it is conferted into what?
aquatic plants produce oxygen bubbles in the light, but not in the dark.
what did ingenhousz discover?
trees gain most of their mass from water
what did van Helmont discover?
plants release oxygen
what did priestly discover?
increase the rate of photosynthesis
what will increasing the intensity of light on photosynthesis do?
lactic acid and alcoholic
what are the two type of fermentation?
what type of fermentation is used to produce beer and wine?
what is the starting molecule for the krebs cycle?
lactic acid fermentation
krebs cycle does not occur during?
C02, NADH, ATP, FADH2
what are the products of the krebs cycle?
what is the energy of the electrons passing along the electron transport chain used to make?
how long must you exercise to to use up all glucose and start burning fat?
what releases energy more slowly, fermentation or cellular respiration?
photosynthesis is to chloroplast as cellular respiration is to?
the series of events that cells go throughas they grow and divide
M phase, S phase, G1 phase, G2 phase
what are the phases of the cell cycle?
during what phase is dna replicated?
the center of chromatids
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telaphase
what are the phases of mitosis in order?
chromatin condenses into chromosomes, spindle forms
chromosomes line up
sister chromatids split
2 nuclear envelops form
helps seperate the chromosomes
what type of cell has a cell plate during cell division
they stop growing
what do cells growing in culture do when they come in contact with other cells?
what regulates the cell cycle?
can the controls on cell growth and division be turned off and on?
can cell division be regulated by factors outside the cell?