Veterinary Medical Terminology Chapter 7 Review

140 terms by sarapettus 

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urinary system

removes wastes from the body by constantly filtering blood

urea

major waste product of protein metabolism; filtered by kidney and used in some diagnostic tests to determine the health status of the kidney

homeostasis

stable internal environment

urin/o, ur/o

combining forms meaning urine or pertaining to the urinary organs

retroperitoneally

word that means located behind the lining of the abdominal cavity or outside the peritoneal cavity

ren/o, nephr/o

combining forms for kidney

cortex

outer layer of the kidney

cortic/o

combining form meaning outer layer; used to describe the outer region of many organs

medulla

inner layer of the kidney

medull/o

combining form meaning inner or middle portion; used to describe the middle or inner portion of many organs

nephron

functional unit of the kidney

glomerulus

cluster of capillaries that filter blood; surrounded by Bowman's capsule

glomerul/o

combining form for glomerulus; means to wind into a ball

glomeruli

plural form of glomerulus

renal pelvis

area of kidney where the nephrons collect before entering the ureters

pyel/o

combining form for renal pelvis

calyces

irregular cuplike spaces that collect urine from the kidney

hilus

concave depression that serves as the point of attachment of the renal blood vessels, nerves, and ureter

Bowman's capsule

cup-shaped structure that contains the glomerulus

proximal convoluted tubules

hollow tubes located between Bowman's capsule and the loops of Henle that are involved in reabsorption

loop of Henle

U-shaped turn in the convoluted tubule of the kidney located between the proximal and distal convoluted tubules that is involved in reabsorption; has ascending and descending loop

distal convoluted tubules

hollow tubes located between the loops of Henle and the collecting tubules that are involved in secretion

collecting tubules

hollow tubes that carry urine from the cortex to the renal pelvis

convoluted

rolled or coiled

ureters

pair of narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder

ureter/o

combining form for ureter

trigone

where the ureters enter the urinary bladder

urinary bladder

singular hollow muscular organ that holds urine

cyst/o

combining form for urinary bladder

sphincters

ringlike muscles that close a passageway

urination, excretion, voiding, elimination, micturition

5 terms used to describe the act of excreting urine

erythropoietin

hormone produced by the kidney that stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow

antidiuretic

hormone released by the posterior pituitary gland that suppresses urine formation by reabsorbing more water; abbreviated ADH

aldosterone

hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates electrolyte blanace via the reabsorption of sodium

urethra

tube extending from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body

urethr/o

combining form for urethra

urethral meatus

external opening of the urethra

meat/o

combining form for opening

uropoiesis

process of urine production

-poiesis

formation

-chrome

color

turbid

cloudy

cystocentesis

surgical puncture of the urinary bladder, usually to collect urine; performed with needle and syringe

cystography

radiographic study of the urinary bladder after contrast material has been placed in the urinary bladder via a urethral catheter; the contrast material used in the urinary bladder is water-soluble

cystogram

radiographic film of the urinary bladder after contrast material has been placed in the urinary bladder via a urethral catheter

retrograde

going backward

cystoscopy

visual examination of the urinary bladder using a fiberoptic instrument

cystoscope

fiberoptic instrument used to access the interior of the urinary bladder

intravenous pyelogram

radiographic study of the kidney (especially the renal pelvis) and ureters in which a dye is injected into a vein to define structures more clearly

-pneumo

air

pneumocystography

radiographic study of the urinary bladder after air has been placed in the bladder via a urethral catheter

radiography

imaging of internal structures that is created by exposing specialized film to x-rays

scout film

plain X-ray made without the use of contrast material

retrograde pyelogram

radiographic study of the kidney and ureters in which a contrast material is placed directly in the urinary bladder

urinalysis

examination of urine components; abbreviated UA

urinary catheterization

insertion of a tube through the urethra into the urinary bladder (usually to collect urine)

catheter

hollow tube that is inserted into a body cavity to inject or remove fluid

albuminuria

presence of the major blood protein in urine

anuria

complete suppression of urine production

bacteriuria

presence of bacteria in urine

crystalluria

urine with naturally produced angular solid of definitive form (crystals)

dysuria

difficult or painful urination

glucosuria, glycosuria

glucose (sugar) in urine

hematuria

blood in urine

ketonuria

presence of ketones in urine

nocturia

excessive urination at night

oliguria

scanty or little urine

pollakiuria

frequent urination

polyuria

excessive urination

proteinuria

presence of proteins in urine

pyuria

pus in urine

stranguria

slow or painful urination

azotemia

presence of urea or other nitrogenous elements in the blood

calculus

abnormal mineral deposit

lith/o

combining form for calculus

casts

fibrous or protein materials found in the urine with renal disease or other abnormality

crystals

naturally produced angular solid of definitive form

cystalgia, cystodynia

urinary bladder pain

cystitis

inflammation of the urinary bladder

cystocele

displacement of the urinary bladder through the vaginal wall

epispadias

abnormal condition in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis

feline lower urinary tract disease

common disease of cats in which cystitis, urethritis, and crystalluria are found; abbreviated FLUTD

glomerulonephritis

inflammation of the kidney involving the glomeruli

hydroneprhosis

dilation of the renal pelvis as a result of an obstruction to urine flow

hydroureter

distension of the ureter with urine caused by any blockage

hypospadias

abnormal condition in which the urethra opens on the ventral surface of the penis

inappropriate urination

eliminating urine at the wrong time or in the wrong place

incontinence

inability to control excretory functions

interstitial cystitis

inflammation within the wall of the urinary bladder

-lithiasis

suffix meaning the presence of stones or calculi

nephrectasis

distension of the kidneys

distension

enlargement

-ectasis

suffix meaning distension or stretching

nephritis

inflammation of the kidneys

nephrolith

kidney stone or renal calculus

nephromalacia

abnormal softening of the kidney

nephropathy

disease of the kidneys

nephrosclerosis

abnormal hardening of the kidney

nephrosis

abnormal condition of the kidney(s)

prerenal

before the kidney

postrenal

after the kidney

prolapse

downward displacement of a body organ

-ptosis

suffix meaning drooping or dropping down

nephroptosis

prolapsed kidney

pyelitis

inflammation of the renal pelvis

pyelonephritis

inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney

renal failure

inability of the kidneys to function

acute

occurring suddenly or over a short period

chronic

having a longer onset

nephrotoxin

poison having destructive effects on the kidneys

polyuria

excessive urination

polydipsia

excessive drinking

diuresis

elevated excretion of urine

diuretics

drugs that increase urine production

renal infarction

obstruction of blood flow through the kidneys

uremia

waste products in the blood

ureterectasis

distension of the ureter

ureterolith

stone in the ureters

urethritis

inflammation of the urethra

urethrostenosis

stricture of the urethra

stricture

abnormal band of tissue narrowing a passage

urinary retention

inability to completely empty the urinary bladder

urinary tract infection

invasion of microorganisms in the urinary system, which results in local cellular injury; abbreviated UTI

urolith, cystolith

urinary bladder stone

cystectomy

surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder

cystopexy

surgical fixation of the urinary bladder to the abdominal wall

cystoplasty

surgical repair of the urinary bladder

cystostomy

surgical creation of a new opening between the skin and urinary bladder

cystotomy

surgical incision into the urinary bladder

dialysis

procedure to remove blood waste products when the kidneys are no longer functioning

peritoneal dialysis

removal of blood waste products by fluid exchange through the peritoneal cavity

hemodialysis

removal of blood waste products by filtering blood through a machine

lithotripsy

destruction of stone using ultrasonic waves traveling through water

-tripsy

crush

nephrectomy

surgical removal of a kidney

nephropexy

surgical fixation of a kidney to the abdominal wall

ureterectomy

surgical removal of the ureter

ureteroplasty

surgical repair of the ureter

urethrostomy

surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin

perineal urethrostomy

surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin between the anus and scrotum

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