Information technology (IT)
_________ _________ refers to the combination of hardware, software, and services that people use to manage, communicate, and share information.
Systems analysis and design
_______ _______ and _______ is a step-by-step process for developing high-quality information systems.
The IT department team includes _______ _______ who plan, develop, and maintain information systems.
in-house applications,software packages
Traditionally, a company either developed its own information systems, called ________ __________ , or purchased systems called __________ __________
A ___________ is a set of related components that produces specific results.
A _________ ________ _______ is one that is vital to a company's operations. An order processing system, for example, is mission-critical because the company cannot do business without it.
In an information system, _______ consists of basic facts that are the system's raw material. _______ is data that has been transformed into output that is valuable to users.
_________ consists of everything in the physical layer of the information system. For example, hardware can include servers, workstations, networks, telecommunications equipment, fiber-optic cables, mobile devices, scanners, digital capture devices, and other technology-based infrastructure.
______ refers to the programs that control the hardware and produce the desired information or results. _______ consists of system software and application software.
________ _________ manages the hardware components, which can include a single workstation or a global network with many thousands of clients. Either the hardware manufacturer supplies the system software or a company purchases it from a vendor.
________ _________ consists of programs that support day-to-day business functions and provide users with the information they require.________ ________ can serve one user or thousands of people throughout an organization.
__________ describe the tasks and business functions that users, managers, and IT staff members perform to achieve specific results. _________ are the building blocks of an information system because they represent actual day-to-day business operations
stakeholders,user, end user
People who have an interest in an information system are called _________ . Stakeholders include the management group responsible for the system, the ______ (sometimes called _______ _______) inside and outside the company who will interact with the system, and IT staff members, such as systems analysts, programmers, and network administrators who develop and support the system.
business process modeling
Systems analysts use a process called _______ _______ _________ to represent company operations and information needs,________ ________ _______ requires a business profile and a series of models that document business processes.
A ________ _________ is an overview of a company's mission, functions, organization, products, services, customers, suppliers, competitors, constraints, and future direction. Although much of this information is readily available, a systems analyst usually needs to do additional research and fact-finding.
business process,business process model (BPM)
A _______ ________ is a specific set of transactions, events, and results that can be described and documented. A ______ ________ ________graphically displays one or more business processes, such as handling an airline reservation, filling a product order, or updating a customer account. The example in Figure 1-11 shows a simple model that includes an event, three processes, and a result.
business process modeling notation (BPMN)
analysts apply computer-based modeling tools that use a standard language called ________ _______ ________ ________ . __________ ____________ __________ _________ includes various shapes and symbols to represent events, processes, and workflows,
Traditionally, IT companies were identified as ________ __________ or __________ _______. Product-oriented firms manufactured computers, routers, or the microchips shown in Figure 1-13, whereas _______ _________ companies included vendors, software developers, and service providers.
The newest kind of company is the Internet-dependent firm, often described as a______-_______ company because its primary business depends on the Internet rather than a traditional business channel. Google, Yahoo!, Amazon, and eBay are examples of pure ______-_______ companies.
At the other end of the scale are traditional firms, sometimes called _______-_______-_______ companies because they conduct business primarily from physical locations. Most successful brick-and-mortar firms — such as Lowe's, Target, and Wal-Mart
Internet-based commerce is called ____________ (__________ ____________)
Using the Internet, consumers can go online to purchase an enormous variety of products and services. This new shopping environment allows customers to do research, compare prices and features, check availability, arrange delivery, and choose payment methods in a single convenient session
he volume of _________-_________-__________(______) transactions is many times greater. Industry observers predict that ________sales will increase sharply as more firms seek to improve efficiency and reduce costs.
electronic data interchange (EDI)
electronic commerce between two companies used a data sharing arrangement called _________ ________ __________. _______enabled computer-to-computer data transfer, usually over private telecommunications lines. Firms used _________ to plan production, adjust inventory levels, or stock up on raw materials using data from another company's information system.
extensible markup language (XML)
As B2B volume soared, the development of ________ ________ _________ (_______) enabled company-to-company traffic to migrate to the Internet, which offered standard protocols, universal availability, and low communication costs
supply chain management (SCM), supplier relationship management (SRM)
This popular form of online B2B interaction is called ________ _________ _________ (_____) , or ________ __________ ________(_______)
_________ ___________ refers to information systems that support company-wide operations and data management requirements.
Wal-Mart's inventory control system, Boeing's production control system, and Hilton Hotels' reservation system are examples of _______ ___________systems.
enterprise resource planning (ERP)
In many large companies, applications called _______ ________ _______ (_____) systems provide cost-effective support for users and managers throughout the company. For example, a car rental company can use ERP to forecast customer demand for rental cars at hundreds of locations.
Transaction processing (TP)
________ ______ (___) systems process data generated by day-to-day business operations. Examples of TP systems include customer order processing, accounts receivable, and warranty claim processing.
Business support systems
________ ________ ________ provide job-related information support to users at all levels of a company. These systems can analyze transactional data, generate information needed to manage and control business processes, and provide information that leads to better decision-making
management information systems (MIS)
The earliest business computer systems replaced manual tasks, such as payroll processing. Companies soon realized that computers also could produce valuable information. The new systems were called ___________ _____________ _________ (____) because managers were the primary users. Today, employees at all levels need information to perform their jobs, and they rely on information systems for that support
radio frequency identification
To compete effectively, firms must collect production, sales, and shipping data and update the company-wide business support system immediately. The newest development in data acquisition is called ________ ________ _________ (_____) technology, which uses high-frequency radio waves to track physical objects
Knowledge management systems,expert systems
_________ ________ _______ are called __________ _______ because they simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules that determine how the knowledge is applied.
knowledge base ,knowledge bases
2 . A _________ ____________ consists of a large database that allows users to find information by entering keywords or questions in normal English phrases. A knowledge management system uses _________ _______ , which are logical rules that identify data patterns and relationships.
Knowledge management systems do not use strict logical rules. Instead, many knowledge management systems use a technique called_________ ________ that allows inferences to be drawn from imprecise relationships. Using _________ _______, values need not be black and white, like binary logic, but can be many shades of gray. The results of a fuzzy logic search will display in priority order, with the most relevant results at the top of the list.
user productivity systems
Companies provide employees at all levels with technology that improves productivity. Examples of _________ _________ _________ include e-mail, voice mail, fax, video and Web conferencing, word processing, automated calendars, database management, spreadsheets, desktop publishing, presentation graphics, company intranets, and high-speed Internet access.
User productivity systems also include __________. _______ programs run on a company intranet and enable users to share data, collaborate on projects, and work in teams. GroupWise, offered by Novell, is a popular example of groupware.
business process reengineering
Corporate organizational structure has changed considerably in recent years. As part of downsizing and __________ __________ ________ , many companies reduced the number of management levels and delegated responsibility to operational personnel. Although modern organization charts tend to be flatter, an organizational hierarchy still exists in most companies.
Top managers develop long-range plans, called _________ ________ , which define the company's overall mission and goals
________ _________ include professional staff members such as systems analysts, programmers, accountants, researchers, trainers, and human resource specialists. _________ _________ also use business support systems, knowledge management systems, and user productivity systems
Operational employees include users who rely on TP systems to enter and receive data they need to perform their jobs. In many companies, operational users also need information to handle tasks and make decisions that were assigned previously to supervisors. This trend, called ___________ , gives employees more responsibility and accountability. Many companies find that __________ improves employee motivation and increases customer satisfaction.
A ________ is an early working version of an information system. Just as an aircraft manufacturer tests a new design in a wind tunnel, systems analysts construct and study information system prototypes
Computer-aided systems engineering (CASE),CASE tools
_________-________ _________ __________ (______) , also called computer-aided software engineering , is a technique that uses powerful software, called _______ ________.
structured analysis,object-oriented (O-O) analysis,agile methods
3. the most popular alternatives are ________ _______ , which is a traditional method that still is widely used, _______-________ (O-O) _________ , which is a more recent approach that many analysts prefer, and _______ ___________
____________ ___________ is the process of planning, scheduling, monitoring, controlling, and reporting upon the development of an information system.
Structured analysis,systems development life cycle
2 ___________ ___________ is a traditional systems development technique that is time-tested and easy to understand. Structured analysis uses a series of phases, called the _________ ___________ ________ _______(________) , to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system.
Structured analysis is based on an overall plan, similar to a blueprint for constructing a building, so it is called a ____________ _________.
Structured analysis uses a set of process models to describe a system graphically. Because it focuses on processes that transform data into useful information, structured analysis is called a ________-__________ ___________. In addition to modeling the processes, structured analysis also addresses data organization and structure, relational database design, and user interface issues.
A process model shows the data that flows in and out of system processes. Inside each process, input data is transformed by___________ ___________ that generate the output
waterfall model,deliverable,end product
3.Structured analysis uses the SDLC to plan and manage the systems development process. The SDLC describes activities and functions that all systems developers perform, regardless of which approach they use. In the _________ __________ , the result of each phase is called a _________, or __________ ___________ , which flows into the next phase.
systems planning phase,systems request
2.The __________ ________ _________ usually begins with a formal request to the IT department, called a _________ __________ , which describes problems or desired changes in an information system or a business process.
The purpose of this phase is to perform a _________ __________ to evaluate an IT-related business opportunity or problem. The ________ ________ is a critical step because the outcome will affect the entire development process.
A key part of the preliminary investigation is a ____________ __________ that reviews anticipated costs and benefits and recommends a course of action based on operational, technical, economic, and time factors.
systems analysis phase,requirements modeling
2.The purpose of the _________ ________ ________ is to build a logical model of the new system. The first step is _________ _________ , where you investigate business processes and document what the new system must do to satisfy users. __________ ____________ continues the investigation that began during the systems planning phase.
system requirements document
The deliverable for the systems analysis phase is the ___________ __________ _________ . The ________ _________ ________describes management and user requirements, costs and benefits, and outlines alternative development strategies.
systems design phase
The purpose of the _________ ___________ ___________ is to create a physical model that will satisfy all documented requirements for the system. At this stage, you design the user interface and identify necessary outputs, inputs, and processes. In addition, you design internal and external controls, including computer-based and manual features to guarantee that the system will be reliable, accurate, maintainable, and secure.
system design specification
The deliverable for this phase is the _________ __________ ________, which is presented to management and users for review and approval
systems implementation phase
During the ________ __________ ________ , the new system is constructed. Whether the developers use structured analysis or O-O methods, the procedure is the same — programs are written, tested, and documented, and the system is installed. If the system was purchased as a package, systems analysts configure the software and perform any necessary modifications.
The systems implementation phase also includes an assessment, called a _____________ _____________ , to determine whether the system operates properly and if costs and benefits are within expectations.
systems support and security phase
During the _________ _________ and ________ _______ , the IT staff maintains, enhances, and protects the system. Maintenance changes correct errors and adapt to changes in the environment, such as new tax rates. Enhancements provide new features and benefits. The objective during this phase is to maximize return on the IT investment. Security controls safeguard the system from both external and internal threats. A well-designed system must be secure, reliable, maintainable, and scalable.
A __________ design can expand to meet new business requirements and volumes. Information systems development is always a work in progress. Business processes change rapidly, and most information systems need to be updated significantly or replaced after several years of operation.
Whereas structured analysis treats processes and data as separate components, object-oriented analysis combines data and the processes that act on the data into things called _______ . Systems analysts use O-O to model real-world business processes and operations.
An ____________ is a member of a class , which is a collection of similar objects. Objects possess characteristics called properties , which the object inherits from its class or possesses on its own.
In O-O design, built-in processes called ________ can change an object's properties. For example, in a Web-based catalog store, an ORDER object might have a property called STATUS that changes when a CUSTOMER object clicks to place, confirm, or cancel the order.
One object can send information to another object by using a _________. A _______ requests specific behavior or information from another object. For example, an ORDER object might send a message to a CUSTOMER object that requests a shipping address.
Object-oriented methods usually follow a series of analysis and design phases that are similar to the SDLC, although there is less agreement on the number of phases and their names. In an O-O model, the phases tend to be more interactive. Figure 1-29 shows a system development model where planning, analysis, and design tasks interact continuously to produce prototypes that can be tested and implemented. The result is an _________ ________ that can accurately depict real-world business processes.
Agile methods typically use a _______ _______ , which represents a series of iterations, or revisions, based on user feedback. As the process continues, the final product gradually evolves. An agile approach requires intense interactivity between developers and individual users, and does not begin with an overall objective.
joint application development (JAD),rapid application development (RAD).
IT professionals know that the key to success is user input — before, during, and after a system is developed. Over time, many companies discovered that systems development teams composed of IT staff, users, and managers could complete their work more rapidly and produce better results. Two methodologies became popular: _________ _________ __________(_______) and ____________ _________ ________ (_____).
Rational Unified Process
a popular approach offered by the Rational group at IBM is called the _______ ________ _________ (_____®)
MSF Microsoft Solutions Framework
Another option is what Microsoft calls ________ _________ ________(____) , which documents the experience of its own software development teams.
The IT group provides ________ _________, which includes six main functions: application development, systems support and security, user support, database administration, network administration, and Web support.
The IT _____________ ___________ group typically provides leadership and overall guidance, but the systems themselves are developed by teams consisting of users, managers, and IT staff members.
Systems support and security
_________ __________ and _________ provides vital protection and maintenance services for system hardware and software, including enterprise computing systems, networks, transaction processing systems, and corporate IT infrastructure. The __________ ___________and _________ group implements and monitors physical and electronic security hardware, software, and procedures.
If a site has a large number of remote clients, the systems support group often includes a ___________ __________ that installs and configures the workstations.
User support,help desk,information center
3. __________ _________ provides users with technical information, training, and productivity support. The user support function usually is called a _______ ______ or __________ _________ (____) .
__________ ____________ involves data design, management, security, backup, and access. In small- and medium-sized companies, an IT support person performs those roles in addition to other duties. Regardless of company size, mission-critical database applications require continuous attention and technical support.
Business operations depend on networks that enable company-wide information systems. _________ __________ includes hardware and software maintenance, support, and security. In addition to controlling user access, network administrators install, configure, manage, monitor, and maintain network applications.
_________ ___________ is a vital technical support function. Web support specialists design and construct Web pages, monitor traffic, manage hardware and software, and link Web-based applications to the company's information systems.
Many large IT departments also use a _________ ____________ (___) team that reviews and tests all applications and systems changes to verify specifications and software quality standards.
A __________ __________ investigates, analyzes, designs, develops, installs, evaluates, and maintains a company's information systems. To perform those tasks, a _________ _________ constantly interacts with users and managers within and outside the company.
critical thinking skills
Although no standard definition exists, most educators agree that _________ _________ _________ include the ability to compare, classify, evaluate, recognize patterns, analyze cause-and-effect, and apply logic. Critical thinkers often use a what-if approach, and they have the ability to evaluate their own thinking and reasoning.
In addition to having goals, methods, and information systems requirements, every firm has an underlying corporate culture . A ________ _________ is the set of beliefs, rules, traditions, values, and attitudes that define a company and influence its way of doing business.