what is the biosphere
The part of the Earth that supports living organisms
What does the biosphere include?
Includes the topmost crust, the water and the surrounding atmosphere.
What is ecology?
The study of interactions that take place among organisms and between organismsand the physical features of the environment.
What are biotic factors?
Living organisms in the biosphere.
What are the levels of biological organization for an organism?
Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ system, Organism, Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biosphere
What is a population?
Organisms of the same species that live in the same place and can produce young
What is special about members of a population
They compete with each other for food, water, mates, and space
How the organisms use the resources that are available will determine how large the population can get.
What is a community?
Groups of populations that interact with each other in a given area.
What is special about members of a community?
Populations depend on each other for food, shelter and other needs
What is an ecosystem?
Made up of the biotic communities and the abiotic factors that affect it.
What is the physical place where an organism lives?
What else might affect a population?
What is an example of a predator/prey relationship?
Wylie Coyote and RoadRunner, Lynx and Rabbit
What are three ways that organisms can live together?
What is symbiosis?
any close relationship between two or more different species
What are the three symbiotic relationships?
Mutualism, commensalism, and parisitism
What is Mutualism?
Mutualism: a symbiotic relationship that benefits both species.
What is an example of mutualism?
A zebra and bird.
What is commensalism?
symbiotic relationship that benefits one partner and does not harm or help the other.
What is an example of commensalism?
a whale and barnacles
What is parasitism?
symbiotic relationship that benefits the parasite and does harm the host.
What is an example of parasitism?
Tapeworm and host
What is a niche?
the role of an organism in an ecosystem
a simple way of showing how energy from food passes from one organism to another.
How many animals are usually in a food chain?
3 or 4
What happens as you go down a food chain?
There is a portion of energy lost as you go from one part of the food chain to another. Plants are going to have the most energy and as you go up the food chain, the amount of energy that the animal gets is cut in half.
series of overlapping food chains
shows the transfer of energy
What does an energy pyramid show?
the availability of each level of a food chain in an ecosystem
Non-living physical features of the environment
What are some abiotic factors?
Water, Soil, Sunlight, Temperature, Air
Why is water important?
All living things are made up of about 50-95% water.
Important part of the cytoplasm
Processes such as respiration, photosynthesis and digestion cannot take place without water.
Why is soil important?
Helps determine what kind of plants are going to grow in an area
Also going to help determine what kind of animals are going to be living in an area
Why is light important?
Light is needed in photosynthesis
Determines what plants lives where and where algae can live based on the availability of sunlight.
Why is temperature important?
The warmer the area, the more plants and animals there will be
Water cycle involves
involves the processes of evaporation, transpiration, condensation, and run off. The heat from the sun makes the water in lakes, streams, and oceans evaporate (liquid to gas). The water molecules that evaporate then travel upwards into the sky. When the molecules reach a certain height, the air temperature gets cooler causing the molecules to condense (gas to liquid). This is when clouds form. When the clouds are full of water, precipitation happens in the form of rain or snow. When there is a lot of water, run off occurs back into the lakes, streams and oceans.
What things determines what kind of climate an area has?
Temperature, elevation, precipitation, latitude
How does temperature affect climate?
sun supplies heat. Temperature is regulated by how much sun a region gets. This is determined by elevation and latitude
How does latitude affect climate?
the closer you get to the North or South poles, the less energy the region gets from the sun and the colder the climate. Season changes also have to do with latitude
How does elevation affect climate?
the higher you go the thinner the atmosphere (Earth's insulation) so heat escapes easily so the climate is colder.
How does precipitation affect climate?
the amount of water that condenses and falls in the form of rain, snow, sleet, hail or fog
What are some other things that affect climate?
Mountain ranges can effect how much rain falls. Will rain on one side of a mountain and not on the other. Deserts are usually found on one side of a mountain.