Chapter 4 Psychology

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A relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes as a result of practice or experience is called _____.
A) training
B) knowledge
C) intuition
D) learning

D) learning

In classical conditioning, what is paired with the UCS to produce learning?
A) CS
B) UCR
C) CR
D) Neutral Stimulus

D) Neutral Stimulus

In Pavlov's original classical conditioning experiments, the _____ was the neutral stimulus, the _____ was the stimulus that would elicit a reflex, and _____ was the reflexive response.
A) meat powder; tone; salivation
B) salivation; meat powder; sounding the tone
C) tone; meat powder; salivation
D) meat powder; salivation; sounding the tone

C) tone; meat powder; salivation

Another word for "learning" is _____.
A) maturation
B) contiguity learning
C) conditioning
D) latent learning

C) conditioning

A(n) _____ is an unlearned reaction evoked by a stimulus without any learning.
A) primary reaction
B) neutral response
C) unconditioned response
D) classical response

C) unconditioned response

Any stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response without previous conditioning is a(n) _____.
A) instinctive response
B) unconditioned stimulus
C) operant stimulus
D) rewarding stimulus

B) unconditioned stimulus

A stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest is called _____.
A) a neutral stimulus
B) irrelevant
C) an unconditioned stimulus
D) an unnatural condition

A) a neutral stimulus

_____ conditioning occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response.
A) Reflex
B) Instinctive
C) Classical
D) Basic

C) Classical

A previously neutral stimulus that, through repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus, produces a conditioned response is now called a(n) _____.
A) conditioned stimulus
B) primary reinforcer
C) secondary reinforcer
D) classical stimulus

A) conditioned stimulus

A(n) _____ is a learned reaction to a previously neutral stimulus due to repeated pairings.
A) secondary response
B) conditioned response
C) neutral reaction
D) operant response

B) conditioned response

Most phobias are explained by _____.
A) personality defects
B) latent learning
C) classical conditioning
D) operant conditioning

C) classical conditioning

Classical conditioning falls under which perspective of psychology?
A) humanism
B) cognitive
C) behavioral
D) psychodynamic

C) behavioral

The occurrence of a learned response only to a specific stimulus, but not to other, similar stimuli is called stimulus _____.

A) inflexibility
B) recovery
C) differentiation
D) discrimination

D) discrimination

Extinction _____.

A) is a gradual suppression of a learned behavior
B) occurs when a CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS
C) is a weakening of the association between the CS and the CR
D) a and b

D) a and b

When a neutral stimulus is paired with a previously conditioned stimulus to become a conditioned stimulus as well, this is called _____ conditioning.
A) operant
B) classical
C) higher order
D) secondary

C) higher order

Learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences is called _____.
A) self-efficacy
B) classical conditioning
C) operant conditioning
D) learning conditioning

C) operant conditioning

_____ increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur, whereas _____ decreases that likelihood.
A) Operant conditioning; classical conditioning
B) Higher order conditioning; operant conditioning
C) Positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement
D) Reinforcement; punishment

D) Reinforcement; punishment

Primary reinforcers _____.
A) need to be learned
B) usually satisfy a biological need
C) increase the probability of a response
D) b and c

D) b and c

Secondary reinforcers increase the probability of a response, and _____
A) are based on prior learning of their reinforcing properties
B) are less reinforcing than primary reinforcers
C) lose their reinforcing value over time
D) are more reinforcing than primary reinforcers

A) are based on prior learning of their reinforcing properties

Adding a stimulus that strengthens or increases a response is called _____
A) positive reinforcement
B) positive conditioning
C) primary reinforcement

A) positive reinforcement

Taking away a stimulus that strengthens or increases a response is called _____.
A) secondary punishment
B) primary punishment
C) negative reinforcement
D) primary reinforcement

C) negative reinforcement

Negative punishment _____ and negative reinforcement _____ the likelihood the response will continue.
A) decreases; decreases
B) increases; decreases
C) decreases; increases
D) increases; increases

C) decreases; increases

Continuous reinforcement occurs when _____.
A) all responses are rewarded
B) all rewards are reinforcing
C) every correct response is rewarded
D) all of responses are conditioned

C) every correct response is rewarded

When you add a stimulus that decreases the likelihood of a response recurring, you are engaged in _____. If you subtract a stimulus with the same result, you are engaged in _____.
A) negative reinforcement; negative punishment
B) positive reinforcement; negative punishment
C) positive punishment; negative punishment
D) positive punishment; negative reinforcement

C) positive punishment; negative punishment

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