Psychology 100 - Developing Through the Life Span

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College level psychology 100

Dr. Birkin's major research interest is the development of motor skills in children. It is most likely that Dr. Birkin is a ________ psychologist.

developmental

People have always responded so positively to Alyssa's good looks that she has developed a socially confident and outgoing personality. This best illustrates the

interaction of nature and nurture

Which of the following refers to the genetic transfer of characteristics from parents to offspring?

heredity

During the course of successful prenatal development, a human organism begins as a(n)

zygote and finally develops into a fetus

One of the most consistently damaging teratogens is

alcohol

The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome are most likely to include

mental retardation

From the first weeks of life, "difficult" babies and "easy" babies display differences in

temperament

Mr. Hersch triggered a rooting reflex in his infant son by touching him on the

cheek

A reflex refers to

an automatic response to sensory stimulation

Twin and adoption studies have been most helpful for teasing apart the influences of

nature and nurture

Lacking any exposure to language before adolescence, a person will never master any language due to the ________ of unused neural connections.

pruning

Recognizing the process of maturation helps us to understand the absence of

bladder control among 2-year-olds

Which psychologist was most influential in shaping our understanding of cognitive development?

Jean Piaget

Four-year-olds are not completely egocentric and 5-year-olds can exhibit some understanding of conservation. This indicates that Piaget may have underestimated the

continuity of cognitive development.

The egocentrism of preschoolers was most strongly emphasized by

Piaget's cognitive development theory.

Babies less than 6 months old look longer than usual at unexpected events such as an object magically disappearing. This suggests that Piage

underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants.

By age 4, preschoolers begin forming a theory of mind. This suggests that Piaget overestimated young children's

egocentrism

At about 8 months, children become increasingly likely to react to newcomers with tears and distress. This best illustrates

stranger anxiety

Studies of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that mother-infant emotional bonds result primarily from mothers providing infants with

contact comfort

Many researchers believe that adult styles of romantic love correspond with childhood patterns of

attachment

Marlys is a sensitive, responsive parent who consistently satisfies the needs of Sara, her infant daughter. According to Erikson, Sara is likely to

form a lifelong attitude of basic trust toward the world

One-year-old Eunice is not overly fearful of strangers but she clearly prefers being held by her mother than by anyone else. Her behavior best illustrates

secure attachment

Edith abuses both her 3-year-old and 1-year-old daughters. Her behavior is most likely related to a lack of

an early and secure attachment to her own parents.

The Rajans use harsh discipline on their children and demand unquestioning obedience. Psychologists are likely to characterize the Rajans as ________ parents.

authoritarian

Parents in Asian cultures are more likely than parents in Westernized cultures to encourage children to

participate in household activities

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