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Chapter 2

Which of the following concepts refers to the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that together constitute a people's way of life?

Culture

Sociologists define a symbol as

anything that carries a meaning to people who share a culture.

Cultural transmission refers to the process of

passing cultural patterns from one generation to another.

Standards by which people who share a culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called

values.

It is correct to say that a society's development of more complex technology

has both positive and negative effects.

Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population are referred to as

popular culture.

Experiencing a strange culture can generate culture shock.

True

Most hand gestures, such as the "thumbs up" sign, have the same meaning around the world.

False

Children have no understanding of what a "family" is before they learn the word for it.

False

Most people in the United States believe that all people should have not only equal opportunity but also equality of condition.

False

People in the United States tend to think of the past as better than the future.

False

We all participate in numerous subcultures without necessarily becoming very committed to any of them.

True

The concept "subculture" refers to patterns that strongly oppose the dominant culture.

False

Cultural relativism means evaluating another culture by the standards of your own culture.

False

Sociobiology explores how human biology- and especially our evolutionary past- has shaped today's culture.

True

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